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Design007-June2019

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70 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I JUNE 2019 • Numerous impedances are generally required to convey differential pairs of various technologies and must be defined on the one substrate • The impedance of the trace is extremely important as any mismatch along the transmission path will result in a reduction in signal quality and possibly the radiation of noise • Resistive terminations match the source to the transmission line • Series termination is excellent for point- to-point routes whereas parallel termina- tion is preferred for address buses • One needs to ensure that the power planes and associated decoupling can handle the high switching current demanded by the processor and memory devices • The goal of PDN planning is to design a stable power source for all the required power supplies • Many of the failures to pass electromag- netic compliancy (EMC) are due to excessive noise on the PDN coupling into external cables and radiating emissions Further Reading • Olney, B. "Beyond Design: Introduction to Board-level Simulation and the PCB Design Process," The PCB Maga- zine, March 2012. • Olney, B. "Beyond Design: It's a Material World," Design007 Magazine, April 2018. • Olney, B. "Beyond Design: Design for Profit," The PCB Design Magazine, July 2013. • Olney, B. "Beyond Design: Rock Steady Design," The PCB Design Magazine, October 2016. • Olney, B. "Beyond Design: New Functionality Improves Designer's Productivity," The PCB Design Magazine, Feb- ruary 2017. Barry Olney is managing director of In-Circuit Design Pty Ltd. (iCD), Australia, a PCB design service bureau that specializes in board- level simulation. The company developed the iCD Design Integ- rity software incorporating the iCD Stackup, PDN, and CPW Planner. The software can be downloaded from www.icd.com.au. To read past columns or contact Olney, click here. Researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering have demonstrated an experimental technique to authen- ticate images throughout the entire pipeline, from acquisi- tion to delivery, using artificial intelligence (AI). In tests, this prototype imaging pipeline increased the chances of detecting manipulation from approximately 45 percent to over 90 percent without sacrificing image quality. Determining whether a photo or video is authentic is be- coming increasingly problematic. Sophisticated techniques for altering photos and videos have become so accessible that so-called "deep fakes"—manipulated photos or vid- eos that are remarkably convincing and often include ce- lebrities or political figures—have become commonplace. Pawel Korus, a research assistant professor in the De- partment of Computer Science and Engineering at NYU Tandon, pioneered this approach. The process is opti- mized for in-camera embedding and can survive image distortion applied by online photo sharing services. The advantages of integrating such systems into cameras are clear. "If the camera itself produces an image that is more sensitive to tampering, any adjustments will be detected with high probability," said Nasir Memon, a professor of computer science and engineering at NYU Tandon and co- author, with Korus, of a paper detailing the technique. Korus and Memon, by contrast, reasoned that modern digital imaging already relies on machine learn- ing. Every photo taken on a smartphone under- goes near-instantaneous processing to adjust for low light and to stabilize images, both of which take place courtesy of onboard AI. (Source: NYU Tandon School of Engineering) AI-Driven Imaging System Protects Authenticity

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