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16 PCB007 MAGAZINE I JUNE 2019 better system performance and the best time to profits. The DT framework imports critical metrics and data from manufacturing through the PDM database (Figure 8) [10] . Since concur- rent engineering has such a short product fo- cus, the wisdom and experience acquired in concurrent manufacturing can be archived in PDM. The DT software architecture of trade-off models and supporting software provides the user with global information (Figure 9). As • Layout and CAD system setup • PWB fabrication design rules, yield optimization, and cost trade-offs • SMT assembly process, packaging component, and test trade-offs • Specifications and documents • Standards and regulations Over the years, I have taken various predic- tive models and coded them into Excel spread- sheets. This allowed me to see the effects of various parameters on events. Eventually, by using macros, I have linked these 34 spread- sheets into one predictive system that allows me to prototype a proposed schematic and look at its performance and costs without ever actually designing it or building it. As shown in Figure 7, this allows the user to improve on any product development or product change process. One key element is missing from this list: the global assignment of custom ASIC pin lo- cations. This would help to reduce PWB and assembly complexity and costs while assuring Figure 7: For digital twin of a PCB, there should be simulations and trade-offs that cover all the domains that a user finds critical, including costs, manufacturability, density, signal integrity, and reliability. Figure 8: Proposed digital twin framework.

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