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86 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I OCTOBER 2021 the challenges are higher power density caused by size reduction, increased power output, reli- ability, and endurance in harsh environments. is means there are now even more reasons to use encapsulation resins and they deliver plenty of value-added benefits: • All-around protection: Acting as a barrier to the external environment, encapsulation resins provide physical, chemical, and thermal protection. ey can physically dampen the impact of shock vibrations or dampen noise produced by the motor. Some encapsula- tion resins also benefit from flame retardant properties. • Electrical insulation: Air and voids can create partial discharges between ground and primary insulation. Encapsulation resins can be used to completely fill all internal spaces, oen helped by vacuum- potting methods to fill all the tiny spaces to guarantee electrical insulation. • ermal dissipation: Some encapsulation resins have high thermal conductivity and are extremely effective at dissipating heat away from hot spots and improve the overall thermal endurance. • Noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH): Although e-motors are quieter than traditional internal combustion engines, and have fewer moving parts, electric vehicles create higher frequency noise that can be annoying over a long period of time. Resins are used to handle the NVH and add perceived value for any vehicle owner. What Types of Resin Solutions Are Available? Unlike aerospace applications, where two or three layers of redundancy may be built into systems, automotive designs typically must work the first time, every time, throughout the life of the product. ere are a variety of expansive resin solutions that improve perfor- mance and reliability. By way of example, resin solutions for EV applications would include black epoxy resin, which is frequently chosen as the resin material to electrically insulate the coil ends of stator windings found in electric vehicles. is resin is highly resistant toward immersion in chemicals found in electric and hybrid vehicles, including cooling fluids, and has extremely wide operating temperature ranges. Its low viscosity also allows for easy potting of all the tiny spaces between the wind- ing coils. EV batteries produce vast amounts of heat during operation and whilst charging. To achieve prolonged battery life and higher effi- ciency, a potting material with a highly ther- mally conductive resin with low viscosity is ideally suited for potting cells within electric vehicle batteries. It also assists with securing cells in place whilst dissipating the heat away to the surroundings. e resin effectively cre- ates a protective shield around the battery, enables adhesion, high temperature resistance, high thermal conductivity, and retention of characteristics throughout the thermal cycling process. Are Changing Customer Requirements in Line? ere is clearly a change in customer require- ments in line with the trend for EVs, such as improved range, faster charging times, and wider availability of charging stations. With each new iteration, a next generation of design typically means components get smaller in size and their power output increases. is normally means that the heat generated from higher density power output components increases. In turn, both short- and long-term operating temperatures of resins need to increase to perform sufficiently. Since resins are used in many areas on a vehicle, from sen- sors and displays to the motors themselves, a lot of development by Electrolube is focused on pushing the limits of thermal performance

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