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DECEMBER 2021 I DESIGN007 MAGAZINE 45 b. Indicates failures with all additional information c. Highly efficient for volume production d. Easy to implement ECOs 4. BSCAN (boundary scan) test: checking the components' boundaries and the quality of the interconnections between them, according to JTAG ( Joint Test Agreement Group) standards. ese standards are based on unique protocols checking the components' surroundings and the transmission of their signals to verify the reliance of their memory, propriety of their soldering to the boards, etc. is is all aimed at allowing the complex test conducted in the shortest time possible and the definite determination of the components' reliability and bill of materials (BOM) compliance. e test also offers: a. Connection Scan TAP with the board via the bed of nails or via connectors b. Superb tool for designers for prototypes and production c. Easy tools to use d. Digital coverage 5. Flying probe test: Robotic test points inspection utilizing a reduced number of nails. Its main advantage revolves around its cost-efficiency when the customer only requires a small number of PCBs and wishes to avoid the costs involved in creating a one-of-a-kind prototype. is method can allow you to reduce the number of test points. Its disadvantage derives from the relatively long time it takes to conduct the test due to its small number of nails and the reduced test options it offers. Additional advantages: a. No need for jigs b. Fast program development c. Good for prototype boards d. Fast testability and coverage reports 6. Cable testing: Designed to test the propriety of the resistance and isolation between the PCB's connectors and electrical wires. e test is conducted in a high-voltage environment (100-200 V or even higher. In comparison, ICT tests can endure only 0.2 10 V). e test is of high importance, especially for the aerospace industry application. 7. Automatic optical inspection (AOI): Utilizing a camera to conduct an automated visual test of the board's components. is test requires the use of consistent and unified marking of the PCB. 8. Add solder paste inspection (SPI) 9. Automatic 3D X-ray test: Looking for soldering errors that are not traceable through the use of AOI. e test automatically covers every soldering point of any individual tin ball in a short time while scanning soldering quality along with the stackup. Common errors usually occur when using too much tin or not using enough of it. is can result in interconnections between components that were not meant to be connected, and in the long run cause an electrical short circuit. 10. Functional testing: Testing the various functions the final system is meant to perform. e test offers: a. Real-time test b. Full path and cluster test c. Specific function test

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