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JANUARY 2022 I SMT007 MAGAZINE 103 Product and Process Provenance As mentioned above, the proposed IPC- 1783 standard distinguishes between product and process provenance. It will define the cre- ation and enrollment of unique identifiers, the building of the relationships of components as they are used or applied, including mandates and requirements for the associated secure in- formation technology infrastructure, while en- suring interoperability between process prov- enance cluster data. e standard will apply to all areas and silos that connect materials and discrete manufacturing, including semicon- ductors, electronics, printed board fabrica- tion, printed board assembly and the applica- tion of the product in the market. So, how will the FeaturePrint system sup- port and enable these standard requirements? In addition to enabling serialization and trace- ability of objects within the system, standard- ized API interfaces allow secure import of data from, and export to, external systems for re- porting and analytics or consolidation for parts and process provenance. e immutable ID and associated data can be securely linked, as the "crypto-anchor" of the physical part, to a blockchain ledger or other system for process provenance. So, important information such as part serial numbers, date and location of manufacture can be tied to this immutable ID. Parts or assemblies can be registered and seri- alized at key supply chain and manufacturing sites. Aer delivery, an item may be authenti- cated once again, its traceability history updat- ed from anywhere in the world. How Is This Image-Based Immutable ID Different? • It is not an image. It is a set of numbers characterizing the surface of a product or item. • It represents a single item, not a class of objects. e system does not have to learn over time what an object is, for example, "is is a PCB"; it simply knows if it has seen that specific PCB before. • It is not a proxy for authentication. e item or product is the ID. Most identifi- cation systems today use proxies such as barcodes, QR codes, or RFID tags. ese proxies can easily be obscured, detached from the object, or themselves be counter- feited. By making the object its own identifier, the system does not need to have anything added to an object to register and authenticate it. Summary is digital image method for creating an Immutable ID provides a powerful item-based machine vision capability to standard cam- eras, hardware, and optics. With easy retrofit into existing industrial and supply chain envi- ronments, you can quickly begin to trace items that were previously untraceable and support your Industry 4.0 initiatives and emerging IPC standards. SMT007 References 1 . "Elimination of Counterfeiting," Alliance for Gray Market and Counterfeit Abatement. David Mills is director of marketing and product management at Alitheon, Inc. Figure 3: A closer look at the process.

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