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March 2016 • The PCB Magazine 71 direCt metallization system for flexible printed CirCuits further optimization may be necessary for the process to be effective for specific types of PI material. Acknowledgement The authors would like to express their sin- cere gratitude to Dr. Christian Rietmann, Eric Walch, and Andreas Gloeckner for their in- valuable contribution to this study. Without their support, this study would not have been possible. PCB References 1. IPC (1996) IPC-T-50: Terms and Defini- tions for Interconnecting and Packaging Elec- tronic Circuits, Revision F (June 1996) IPC, Northbrook, IL. 2. IPC-A-600: Acceptability of Printed Cir- cuit Boards. 3. Flexible Circuit Design Guide, MINCO. 4. Flexible Circuit Design Guide, 4th Ed., Teledyne Electronic Technologies. 5. Publicly available technical datasheets for each type of PI substrate. 6. Flexible Circuit Technologies Originally published in the proceedings of SMTA International, 2015. (left to right) Dr. Rita Mohanty is director of global R&D and project management; Dr. Albert Angstenberge is global application manager; Dr. Melanie Rischka is senior R&D chemist; Mr. Han Verbunt is a scientist. All co- authors are with MacDermid Enthone Electronics solutions. Demonstrating a strategy that could form the basis for a new class of electronic devices with uniquely tunable prop- erties, researchers at Ky- ushu university were able to widely vary the emis- sion color and efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes based on exci- plexes simply by changing the distance between key molecules in the devices by a few nanometers. This new way to control electrical properties by slightly changing the device thickness instead of the materials could lead to new kinds of organic electronic devices with switching behavior or light emission that reacts to external factors. organic electronic devices such as olEDs and organic so- lar cells use thin films of organic molecules for the electrically active materials, making flexible and low-cost devices possible. A key factor deter- mining the properties of organic devices is the behavior of pack- ets of electrical energy called excitons, which consists of a negative electron attracted to a positive hole, and can be thought of as a missing electron. In olEDs, the energy in these excitons is released as light when the electron loses energy and fills the vacancy of the hole. Varying the exciton energy, for example, will change the emission color. "This is some of the first evidence that electrons and holes could still interact like this across such a long distance," commented Professor Adachi, "so this structure may also be a useful tool for study- ing and understanding the physics of excitons to design better olEDs and organic solar cells in the future." Artificial Control of Exciplexes Opens Possibilities for New Electronics

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