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April 2016 • SMT Magazine 47 and only an expert in the field can be trusted to touch such a project. Conclusion The cost of rework indicates that the ma- jor cost drivers for rework include: the fully burdened hand soldering technician costs, the equipment and its support and most impor- tantly the rework process yield. The use of con- tract rework providers is prudent in the cases of large, complex or highly time-sensitive rework projects. However, careful review of the suppli- ers' knowledge of standards and adherence to processes needs to be taken in to consideration prior to making the outsourcing call. references 1. The Core Competence of the Corpora- tion," by C.K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel, Har- vard Business Review, pp 2–14, May–June 1990. 2. 2015 Wage Rate & Salary Study for the North American Electronics Assembly Industry IPC 2016. 3. A CEERIS study indicated that per-de- vice placement costs are multiplied by 10x after reflow, another 10x after test and an- other 10x when the assembly gets into the field. 4. BEST master in- structor survey, 2009. 5. Epstein, M. J. 1996. "Accounting for product take back." Management Account- ing (August). 6. Filimon, R., et al. 1987. "Spoilage with a production function." Accounting Business Research (Autumn): 337–348. 7. Healy, J. P. and R. G. Stephens, 1999. "Accounting for scrap in multiphase se- quential production processes using an activity-based cost system." Journal of Cost Management (January/Febru- ary): 3–9. IPC Wage Rate and Salary Study for the North American Ems Industry 2013–14. IPC 2015. 8. Ray Cirimele, Pan Pac 2006 Proceedings. BGA Rework: A comparative study of selective solder paste deposition for area array packages. 9. Robert Farrell, Paul Bodmer, and Jeff Du- haime, SMTAI Proceedings, September 2014, "Rework of high thermal mass BGAs, QFNs, and SMT connectors on lead-free circuit boards as- semblies with temperature sensitive optical fi- ber components." SMT Bob Wettermann is the principal of BEST Inc., a contract rework and repair facility in Chicago. Figure 2: X-ray capability is something to look for in a higher-end rework/ repair facility. To ouTsourcE or noT To ouTsourcE Pcb rEWork

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