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80 The PCB Magazine • May 2016 by Karl H. Dietz Electronic Packaging Levels karl's teCH talk Electronic packaging refers to the integration of electronic elements into a functioning device by forming connectivity at different levels. Levels of Electronic Packaging One distinguishes between different levels of electronic packaging, a convention that is not always consistent. It typically refers to the ini- tial connection of the chip (integrated circuits, central processing unit, memory chip, graphic processor, etc.) to other elements or connecting structures as first level packaging. Such first level packages typically serve the function of fanning out the very tight I/O grit of the chip to a larger pad footprint that can be more easily connected to other elements. Examples of such packages are leaded components, wire-bonded packages or flip chip packages. Depending on the position of the connecting pads on the package, one distin- guishes between dual in-line packages, perimeter arrays, and area arrays. First level packages may also incorporate passive components such as ca- pacitors or resistors. Second level packaging typically re- fers to the fabrication of a circuit board (PCB, motherboard) and the mounting of first level packages and passive com- ponents (capacitors, resistors, induc- tors) to such a board (assembly). Third level packaging normally re- fers to the connection of assembled boards to elements such as power sup- plies, displays and ultimately to the "box," which is the final electronic de- vice. Occasionally, the term "zero level packaging" is also used. It refers to the formation of interconnect features on the wafer before it is cut up (singulated) into individual chips. Such zero level packaging might encompass the forma- tion of so-called redistribution layers

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