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74 SMT Magazine • September 2016 manding instances for detail and integrity such as those required by critical-safety systems, all the way through to situations where only ba- sic traceability may be needed, such as for sim- ple consumer products. This standard pres- ents a cellular-based structure so as to provide required flexibility and to create an efficient format in which unnecessary duplication of data is avoided. The format also allows data to be added after the completion of production, al- lowing further detail to be added as it becomes available. Throughout the design of this standard, dif- ferent key usage models of traceability were considered. It is written to explain how access to critical data, when needed to identify the ex- act scope of any market issues, can be ensured, while also being capable of providing "live" ac- cess to detailed product build records for ad- vanced quality analysis. This standard also demonstrates the benefits of best-practice data collection through automated means. This is re- flected in the definitions of the different levels of traceability. To suit the many different sets of require- ments for traceability across the various sec- tors of the electronics manufacturing indus- try, four levels each have been defined of mate- rial (M1 through M4) and process (P1 through P4) traceability (Table 5-1). These levels may be combined in any way, such as to create require- ments which can be agreed upon by user and supplier (i.e., the two parties agree to traceabil- ity of M3 with P1). IPC-1782 STANDARD FOR TRACEABILITY SUPPORTING COUNTERFEIT COMPONENT DETECTION Figure 2: Overview and summary of traceability levels.

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