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March 2017 • The PCB Design Magazine 43 3. M-Theory and the Higgs Boson, ABC Sci- ence, Dr. Henryk Frystacki 4. Electromagnetic Problems Solving by Conformal Mapping, Wesley Pacheco Calixto 5. Conformal Transformations in Electrical Engineering, W. J. Gibbs 6. Comparing PCBs for Microstrip and Grounded Coplanar Waveguide Circuits, John Coonrod & Brian Rautio Barry Olney is managing director of In-Circuit Design Pty Ltd (ICD), Australia. This PCB design service bureau specializes in board-level sim- ulation, and has developed the ICD Stackup Planner and ICD PDN Plan- ner software. To read past columns, or to contact Olney, click here. • A tightly coupled CPWG circuit with an ENIG finish will suffer greater conductor loss than a loosely coupled CPWG circuit with the same ENIG finish. • At approximately 2.7GHz, the resonant behavior of the nickel component in ENIG in- creases insertion loss. Therefore, SMOBC pro- cessing should be considered for all high-speed designs. • Conformal transformation is a technique that allows one to take difficult problems, map them into a coordinate system, where they are convenient to solve, and then find a relatively simple solution. PCBDESIGN References 1. Barry Olney's Beyond Design columns: Faster Than a Speeding Bullet, Surface Finishes for High-speed PCBs 2. Make a Date with Another Dimension, Cosmos Magazine, Paul Davis Whether it's Industry 4.0, self-driving cars or smart home solutions – connected machines and high-value goods need security mecha- nisms that can be updated. The objective of the ALES- SIO research is to develop and assess these security mechanisms. In this project under the leadership of Infi- neon Technologies AG, The Technical University of Munich (TUM) collaborates with companies like Siemens AG and the Munich- based Fraunhofer Institute for Applied and Inte- grated Security. Every new connected device in the Internet of Things is a potential target: sensitive data and in- formation that are not sufficiently protected could be captured and used for further attacks. This is why reliable protection for safety-critical information is based on a combination of software and hardware. The hardware – a security chip – is comparable to a safe: a highly protected area in which data and security keys are stored separately from the software. But due to the long life-span of industrial facilities e.g. manufacturers need to be able to respond to changed or new attack meth- ods. Hence the data and se- curity-relevant information in these devices and industrial plants have to be updatable. Within the next three years, the ALESSIO research partners will develop updatable security solutions for such embedded systems. One of the approaches is a conventional hardware-based Secure Element with updatable software. A Secure Element in complex, program- mable logic devices (FPGA, field-programmable gate array) is also underway. In the end, three practice-oriented prototypes will show the solu- tions' feasibility and functional capabilities. The project runs until the end of 2019 and is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research with approximately Euro 3.9 million. Updatable Chips for a Safer Internet of Things MICROSTRIP COPLANAR WAVEGUIDES

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