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74 SMT Magazine • June 2017 The algorithm works at a rate compatible with image acquisition times and generates a standard grayscale image as part of the process. Example Applications This article is focused on discussing the X- ray MAP inspection technology for the electron- ics industry, including PCBs and semiconductor applications. In this section, we show some ex- amples of the MAP X-ray inspection technolo- gy applied in the security and food industries. The intention is to enhance the reader's under- standing of the technology and to facilitate the generation of ideas and requirements that can apply for the electronics industry. Security Inspection Security threats may be disguised within ev- eryday objects such as laptops and mobile tele- phones, which are legitimately carried. X-ray security scanners typically use measurements taken at two voltage settings of the X-ray gen- erator in order to generate materials informa- tion. This approach requires two scans. Using the MAP, the measurement can be reduced to a single scan at only one voltage setting. A desk telephone, shown in Figure 4, was measured as an example of a complex object containing electronic circuitry and plastics. Data were collected at 120 kV, 0.5 mA, with a 0.5 s exposure, using a conventional, low-pow- er tungsten X-ray source and a silicon flat-pan- el detector equipped with the MAP technology. Analysis of the image data leads to the materials discrimination image shown in Figure 4 (right). The color-scheme here is one typically used in security applications: plastics and other organic materials are presented in orange; so called poor metals, such as aluminum, are shown in green; denser metals are shown in blue. We see the potential for the same techniques to be applied in PCB inspection to highlight in- consistencies in circuit boards and other elec- tronic components. Food Inspection Detecting bone fragments in meat products is just one aspect of food safety which is im- portant to both consumers and food producers. Fresh meat products pose particular challeng- es: The sample shape is not regular and there is variation from one sample to the next; the thickness of the product varies; the bone frag- ments are probably not visible on the outside of the sample; and the bone fragments are small 2D X-RAY INSPECTION WITH MATERIALS AND THICKNESS IDENTIFICATION Figure 4: (Left) Absorption contrast image of a telephone. (Right) Materials contrast image showing plastics (orange), poor metals (green) and dense metals (blue). Figure 5: Top left: Chicken breast pieces with concealed bone fragments (dish 12 cm across). Top right: standard X-ray absorption image. Bottom left: materials image showing the materi- al difference between chicken (mid-gray) and bone (black). Bottom right: materials information (orange) overlaid on the absorption contrast image to highlight bone fragments to the opera tor.

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