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84 The PCB Magazine • June 2017 author that, using the increased agitation ability of the MS streaming currents, it may be possible to enhance deposition during electroless copper plating, paving the way to further processing de- velopments in the formation of high ar BVs. Acknowledgements The work was performed as a part of the En- gineering Doctorate Degree in Photonics fund- ed by the Engineering and Physical Research Council (EPSRC) under the grant number EP/ G037523/1. The authors would like to acknowl- edge the financial support of Merlin Circuit Technology, specifically Dennis Price and Mat- thew Beadel for their technical advice. PCB References 1. Technavio Global Printed Circuit Board Market 2016–2017. SKU: IRTNTR8157, 2016. 2. KPCA Korea PCB Industry. 3. N. Strusevich, et al., Electroplating for high aspect ratio vias in PCB manufacturing: enhancement capabilities of acoustic stream- ing. Springer Verlag, Journal of Advanced Man- ufacturing, 2013. 4. T.D.A. Jones, et al., Megasonic Assisted Electroplated copper Topographies and Accous- tic Artefacts. Circuit World, 2016. 5. T.D.A. Jones, D. Flynn, and M.P.Y. Des- mulliez. Megasound Acoustic Surface Treatment Process in the Printed Circuit Board Industry. in Design, Test, Integration & Packaging of MEMS/ MOEMS (DTIP), 2016. Budapest: IEEE. 6. A.J. Cobley, L.E., M.Goosey, R.Kellner, T.J.Mason, Initial studies into the use of ul- trasound to reduce process temepratures and chemical usage in the PCB desmear process. Circuit World, Emerald Publishers, 2011. 7. Keswani, M., et al., Megasonic cleaning of wafers in electrolyte solutions: Possible role of electro-acoustic and cavitation effects. Elsevier, Journal of Microelectronic Engineering, 2009. 8. S. Costello, et al., Electrodeposition of copper into high-aspect ratio PCB microvia us- ing megasonic agitation. Springer Verlag, Jour- nal of Microsystems Technology, 2013. 9. S.P. Gurrum, et al. Generic Thermal Analysis for Phone and Tablet Systems, in 62nd Electronic Components and Technology Con- ference (ECTC), 2012. IEEE. 10. Wood, E.R., Printed Circuit Board Reflow by Vapour Phase Heating, Circuit World, 1983. 11. Simpson, R.J., An Effect of Ultrasonic Standing Waves on Electrodeposition. Nature, 1965. 12. Rienstra, S.W. and A. Hirschberg, IWDE 92-06: An Introduction to Acoustics. IWDE 92- 06, 2013: Eindhoven University of Technology. 13. Biryukov, S.V., et al., Surface Acoustic Waves in Inhomogeneous Media, 2012: Spring- er Berlin Heidelberg. 14. Feng, K., L. Yuanyuan, and M. Cheng, Numerical analysis of the transportation char- acteristics of a self-running sliding stage based on near-field acoustic levitation. Acoustical So- ciety of America, 2015. 15. Tang, S.C. and G.T. Clement, Standing- Wave Suppression for Transcranial Ultrasound by Random Modulation. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 2010. This paper was originally presented at the In- stitute of Circuit Technology Spring Seminar held in Meriden, UK, 14 March 2017 and published in their June edition, volume 10, number 3. MEGASONIC ACOUSTIC SURFACE TREATMENT PROCESS Thomas Jones is Research Associate at Heriot-Watt University. Dr. David Flynn is director of the Smart Systems Group at Heriot-Watt University. Professor Marc Desmulliez is deputy head of Research Institute in Signals, Sensors and Systems at Heriot-Watt University. Dennis Price is in the Technical Department at Merlin Circuit Technology.

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