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32 PCB007 MAGAZINE I APRIL 2018 robust materials regarding temperature, hu- midity and bias voltage, and electrical per- formance. In the future this can result in re- strictions in material choice and design rules. To guarantee the necessary electrical perfor- mance, PCB supplier should be qualified for high-speed applications. Regarding the electrical properties of the PCB base material (Dk, Df), production toler- ances and environmental effects like temper- ature and humidity—which shift the electri- cal values—must be considered for automo- tive applications. As an example, the relative permittivity and the dielectric loss will be re- duced during thermal aging but the dielectric constant will go up by increased moisture con- tent in epoxy materials. Conclusion Automotive electronics face tremendous changes in function and requirements. Solu- tions from the consumer industry can be mod- ified or adapted to automotive requirements and new concepts for mass production of pow- er electronic must be developed. A summary of the higher automotive re- quirements: • Longer lifetime (charging times, operation times) • Higher temperature load (miniaturized electronics near applications; new applications) • Smaller distances (miniaturization; function—connectivity, automation) • Higher humidity load (Asia) • Higher frequencies Upcoming challenges: • PCBs are optimized on temperature load (TC classes up to 150°C; in the future, will need 160°C and higher) • Material even at higher temperatures must stay stable regarding crack formation between electrical potential • All materials used must not interact at humidity, temperature and bias (to avoid ECM) • High-speed design up to now possible with existing materials; in the future, new materials will be necessary (>10 GHz) Dedicated automotive environmental con- ditions especially must be considered to de- sign and produce reliable electronics with PCBs . Adequate new PCB material qualifica- tion strategies are necessary and under devel- opment. PCB007 A presentation on this subject was originally made at the EIPC 2018 Winter Conference held in Lyon, France, February 1, 2018. Dr. Christian Klein is group leader of the Automotive Electronics PCB Technology Group at Robert Bosch GmbH. A cup holder that wirelessly charges electronic devices in a 3D space has been developed by ETRI in South Korea. It is dubbed as 'E-Cup' and can charge multiple devices placed inside the 10 cm-wide holder at the same time, at the same rate as wired chargers, regard- less of orientation or position of the devices. Shaped just like a circular cup holder, the wireless charger gener- ates and maintains a constant and uniform magnetic field. The electric current wirelessly flows to the batteries inside the electronic devices based on the magnetic resonance. ETRI's Cup Holder Charges Phones Wirelessly

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