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20 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I MAY 2018 where to initially implement, and how quickly the carrier should implement 5G. Remember, there is the issue of speed of implementation vs. cost. One more key question is also eco- nomic: Who will become a leader? Who will be one of the first to implement 5G (costly) vs. waiting, and how long should they wait before jumping in. Waiting is less costly, but there is the challenge of catching up. I think that the hurdles and questions will become more obvious before the year end. As I often say, stay tuned! Shaughnessy: What will 5G mean for PCB lami- nate suppliers? More high- speed, low-loss materials? Feinberg: 5G will probably require better, improved circuit board laminates and conductors. I am far from an expert on this, but it seems to be obvious to some of the suppliers that the different compo- nents for high-frequency (and perhaps many varying frequencies) circuits that will be used in a 5G network, including everything from power amplifiers to oscillators, will create new requirements and as-yet unknown issues. 5G may represent the next-gen wireless technol- ogy, but it will be a challenge to design and fabricate. I would guess that the circuit board materials used to build circuits that will oper- ate across many different frequencies for 5G will have to undergo changes. However, it is possible that today's high-quality materials will meet some of the need. Shaughnessy: Do you, or anyone, for that mat- ter, know how 5G will affect PCB designers, fabricators, and assembly providers? A lot of people in the PCB world seem to have a wait- and-see attitude. Feinberg: I think that the top tier already has a good idea what they will be able to do and what some of the initial challenges will be. They are more knowledgeable than they prob- ably let on, and it is actually very smart to "wait and see" before going public Shaughnessy: 5G sounds a lot like some of the speeds that our friends in RF and microwave have been dealing with for years. Will they be ahead of the 5G game? Feinberg: I would expect so. Anyone who is used to designing and build- ing high-speed, precision, tighter-spec devices will certainly be ahead of the game. Shaughnessy: You've been covering CES, the Con- sumer Electronics Show for I-Connect007 for years. What effect do you expect 5G to have on consumer devices such as VR, AR, XR, and autonomous and electric vehicles? Feinberg: It depends. If the XR (cross-reality) is local, such as connected to a local computer or network, with no wireless, 5G will not be a factor. But if it is across the network (Internet) there will be much higher capability, lower lag, and higher resolution. For global XR such as sports events, remote medical treatment, remote military ops, gaming across the net and for greatly improved resolution and response, 5G will be a hugely positive factor, in my opin- ion. I strongly feel that humanity has entered the "If you can imagine it, it can be done" era, and 5G will be a big enabler to making this happen. Shaughnessy: Thanks for the insight, Dan. Feinberg: Thank you, Andy. DESIGN007 Dan Feinberg

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