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34 SMT007 MAGAZINE I SEPTEMBER 2018 too low, excess amounts of active flux residues are left behind, and when ample moisture is available from a normal operating atmosphere or from condensing moisture anomalies, there is a greater risk of failure due to electrical leak- age and/or electrochemical migration. Active no-clean flux residues are conductive in gen- eral and when moisture is absorbed into the residue across non-common conductors, volt- age easily flows between the two. This is why it's so important to monitor the effect of your throughput speeds when ramping up to meet the 50 million requested pieces to support the megatrends in the electronics industry. I want to close with a megapology for using the word "mega" incorrectly so many times. As I said, it's a mega fun word to say. SMT007 References 1. "Megatrends in Electronic Business: An Analysis of the Impacts on SMEs," by Marko Ovaskainen and Markku Tinnilä, Modern Entrepreneurship and E-Business Innovations. Eric Camden is a lead investigator at Foresite Inc. To read past columns or contact Camden, click here. Scientists at the United Technologies Research Center and the University of Connecticut (UConn) are using advanced additive manufacturing technology to create 'smart' machine components that alert users when they are damaged or worn. The researchers also applied a variation of the tech- nology to create polymer-bonded magnets with intricate geometries and arbitrary shapes, opening up new possi- bilities for manufacturing and product design. The key to both innovations is the use of an advanced form of 3D printing called direct write technology. Unlike conventional additive manufacturing, which uses lasers to fuse layers of fine metal powder into a solid object, direct write technology uses semisolid metal 'ink' that is extruded from a nozzle. This process allowed the UConn- UTRC scientists to create fine lines of conductive silver filament that can be embedded into 3D printed machine components while they are being made. The lines, which are capable of conducting electric current, act as wear sensors that can detect damage to the part. "This changes the way we look at manufacturing," says Sameh Dardona, associate director of research and innovation at UTRC, which serves as the innovation engine for United Technologies Corp. "We can now inte- grate functions into components to make them more intel- ligent. These sensors can detect any kind of wear, even corrosion, and report that infor- mation to the end user. This helps us improve performance, avoid failures, and save costs." According to Dardona, this is a great example of collaboration between industrial research and academic research. "We always have new concepts that we'd like to try and explore. This collabo- ration allowed us to leverage the knowledge, expertise, and facili- ties available at UConn to help us address some of these technolog- ical challenges," he says. (Source: University of Connecticut) Smart Machine Components Alert Users to Damage and Wear

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