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OCTOBER 2018 I PCB007 MAGAZINE 103 Goldman: Here in the lab I see grinders and things like that, so you're doing cross-sec- tions and checking. Everything is check, check, check, right? Chassé: That's precisely it. That's one point of reference, for example, in the copper plating. And out at the line you saw me working yesterday, we do not have online analytics out there, so I'm working with those. And that's one point of reference. What they're doing here is a visual reference. Even though it's a two- dimensional representation, it gives you an idea of where you are, and it's a piece of the puzzle. All these things are in place to let us know that everything is normal. Goldman: At some point, do you expect that you will be backing off on some of these checks? Chassé: Given the standard requirements, it's only going to be more. Especially for the cross-section analyses. Goldman: Eventually you're going to be doing outside work and they're going to require cross-sections. Everything chang- es on almost every job, so you've got a lot to dial in. Chassé: It's a lot of stuff. We were reflect- ing last night at how many steps there are in the manufacturing process of a print- ed circuit board. Each step is necessary so that you can proceed to the next step. One feeds the next. And everything, all your hoops, must be aligned. Goldman: Okay, I know you've got some- where else to be, but thanks very much for your time. Chassé: And you'll see me out at the line, so feel free to come by. Goldman: Thanks. PCB007 DARPA's $2 Billion Campaign to Develop Next Wave of AI Technologies Over its 60-year history, DARPA has played a leading role in the creation and advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies that have produced game-changing capa- bilities for the Department of Defense. Starting in the 1960s, DARPA research shaped the first wave of AI technologies, which focused on handcrafted knowledge, or rule-based systems capable of narrowly defined tasks. Starting in the 1990s, DARPA helped usher in a second wave of AI machine learning technologies that created statistical pattern rec- ognizers from large amounts of data. The agency's funding of natural language understanding, problem solving, navi- gation and perception technologies has led to the creation of self-driving cars, personal assistants, and near-natural prosthetics, in addition to a myriad of critical and valuable military and commercial applications. However, these sec- ond wave AI technologies are dependent on large amounts of high quality training data, do not adapt to changing con- ditions, offer limited performance guarantees, and cannot provide users with explanations of results. To address these limitations, DARPA seeks to explore new theories and applications that could make it possible for machines to adapt to changing situations. DARPA sees this next generation of AI as a third wave of technological advance, one of contextual adaptation. To better define a path forward, DARPA announced a multi-year investment of $2 billion in new and existing programs, the "AI Next" campaign. Agency director, Dr. Steven Walker, unveiled the large-scale effort during closing remarks at DARPA's D60 Symposium. (Source: DARPA)

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