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34 SMT007 MAGAZINE I MARCH 2019 ern manufacturing. Successful automation implementation can be enhanced in any company, small or large, by reviewing the philosophies of CIM, automation, manage - ment roles, mechanization, SPC, TQC, Lean, MRP, and DFM. Computer-integrated Manufacturing (CIM) The strategies outlined here are considered CIM, but the current vocabulary now is "In- dustry 4.0" or "smart factories." Products in- clude various software, computer, networking, interface, and measurement systems. At that time, HP had been in the automation business longer than any other company. It all started with requests from the government and others for automated test and measurement systems. Because of the need to automate various mea- surement instruments and systems, HP created the first machine-to-machine, plug-and-play protocol called HP Interface Bus (HP-IB). This was later formalized into the IEEE-488 com- munication standard. CIM architecture was defined as early as 1980 when the CASA/SME published a presen- Automation and the Smart Factory: Introduction to Industry 4.0 Feature by Happy Holden I-CONNECT007 Editor's Note: Parts of this article include ex- cerpts from and expansions of Automation and Advanced Procedures in PCB Fabrication. There's a lot of talk about automation, but I find that there is very little available on auto- mation planning. This is one of my specialties. I started by studying for an MSEE in control theory, which went well with my bachelor's de- gree in chemical engineering because I special- ized in process control and IC manufacturing. Before we get started, remember that the benefits will be derived only if certain car- dinal principles are observed. This article briefly outlines the background of computer- integrated manufacturing (CIM) and its evo- lution to Industry 4.0 and smart factories. The characteristics of successful automa- tion application in manufacturing depend on how well business and technical man- agement understand and promote the strate- gies, tactics, and philosophies used in mod-

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