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14 PCB007 MAGAZINE I MARCH 2019 8. True or False: Smart factory automation achieves agile operation with off-the-shelf au- tomation and control systems industry-wide. 9. Industry 4.0 includes which of the following digital and physical technologies: a. Analytics b. Web browsers c. Robotics d. High-performance computing e. Augmented reality f. AI and cognitive technologies g. Buggy whips h. Advanced materials 10. True or False: Organizational change man- agement will be a simple, matter-of-fact affair since smart factories will result in a net loss of manufacturing jobs. 11. True or False: Cybersecurity becomes a great- er concern precisely because a smart factory is highly connected. 12. True or False: The most effective way to implement a smart factory is to start with a greenfield ground-up/build-out. Answers 1. D. 2. False. A true smart factory is a more holistic en- deavor, moving beyond the shop floor toward influencing the enterprise and broader ecosystem. The smart factory is integral to the broader digital supply network and has multiple facets that manufacturers can leverage to adapt to the changing marketplace more effectively. 3. True. 4. B. While valuable, destructive testing is a post-facto analysis—not a factor in predictive analysis. 5. False. The ability to evolve and adapt, coupled with powerful data processing and storage capabilities, allows manufacturers to move beyond task automation toward more complex, connected processes. 6. G. 7. C. While improved social events may be a secondary effect, it probably benefits from these first-order benefits: increased profitability and reduced costs. 8. False. One of the most important features of the smart factory—agility—also presents manufacturers with multiple options to leverage digital and physical technolo- gies depending on their specific needs. There is no single smart factory configuration, nor is there a single path to successfully achieving a smart factory solution. 9. Everything except B and G. Web browsers may be a fundamental part of accessing data, but strictly speak- ing, they do predate Industry 4.0. Buggy whips are clearly not Industry 4.0, although they serve as a reminder of what might happen to businesses that do not embrace Industry 4.0 concepts and systems. 10. False. While there may indeed be fewer operations positions in a smart factory, other roles are expected to be augmented by the new capabilities, such as pre- manufacturing engineering positions. New roles will likely emerge as well. 11. True. Every connection is a potential hack point. This exposure only increases as connectivity and data start moving outside the walls of the manufacturer, and up and down the manufacturing supply chain. 12. False. While that may be one way to do it, most exist- ing facilities aren't in a position to simply build new. It can be more effective to start small, testing each new concept and then scaling based on your specific lessons learned. Scaling can proceed from a single asset to a production line, the factory, and/or a network of factories. Your Rating 1–4: Time to read up. If you scored less than four, then much of the current industry transformation is getting past you. 5–8: Pretty good. You have an awareness, so that's a good start. We suggest you get even more information through further reading. Whether your factory moves to smart factory methods or not, as a professional in this in- dustry, you will need to be informed to remain employable. 9–12: Looks like you're doing your research! If you're preparing for an Industry 4.0 implementation in your fac- tory, keep it up. PCB007 Reference 1. Deloitte University Press. 2017. "The Smart Factory: Responsive, Adaptive, Connected Manufacturing—A De- loitte Series on Industry 4.0, Digital Manufacturing Enter- prises, and Digital Supply Networks."

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