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20 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I APRIL 2019 INTEGRATED SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE INTEGRATED SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE Feature by Happy Holden I-CONNECT007 There's a lot of talk about automation, but I find that there is very little available on auto- mation planning. This is one of my specialties. I started by studying for an MSEE in control theory, which went well with my bachelor's degree in chemical engineering because I spe- cialized in process control and IC manu- facturing. Before we get started, remember that the benefits will be derived only if cer- tain cardinal principles are observed. This arti- cle briefly outlines the background of com- puter-integrated man- ufacturing (CIM) and its evolution to Indus- try 4.0 and smart fac- tories. The characteristics of successful automation application in manufac- turing depend on how well business and technical man- agement understand and promote the strategies, tactics, and philoso- phies used in modern manufactur- ing. Successful automation implementation can be enhanced in any company, small or large, by reviewing the philosophies of CIM, automation, management roles, mechaniza- tion, SPC, TQC, Lean, MRP, and DFM. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) The strategies outlined here are considered CIM, but the current vocabulary now is "Indus- try 4.0" or "smart factories." Products include various software, computer, networking, inter- face, and measurement systems. At that time, HP had been in the automation business lon- ger than any other company. It all started with requests from the government and others for automated test and measurement systems. Because of the need to automate various mea- surement instruments and systems, HP created the first machine-to-machine, plug-and-play protocol called HP Interface Bus (HP-IB). This was later formal- ized into the IEEE-488 com- munication standard. CIM architecture was defined as early as 1980 when the CASA/SME published a presen- tation of computer- integrated manufac- turing to provide a common set of terms for its members. The ring surrounding the wheel represents various influencing factors for the development of CIM such as expertise as a human factor, productivity as an economic fac- tor, and computer technology as a technological factor. The wheel itself contains four functions, including engineering design, manufactur- ing planning, production control, and factory automation (Figure 1). If the individual func- tions are connected to each other and operate with a common database, an integrated sys- tem architecture is created and represented by the hub of the wheel. This development has resulted in the realization that CIM, apart from Automation and the Smart Factory: Introduction to Industry 4.0 Figure 1: The CIM wheel defined by CASA/SME.

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