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22 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I APRIL 2019 factory automation and functions, is indirectly related to the operational performance, such as design (product/process), and production planning and control. Additionally, CIM is linked to common busi- ness administrative tasks such as manufactur- ing management, strategic planning, finance, marketing, and human resource management. A further innovation was the addition of infor- mation resource management and communi- cations between the different functions. There- fore, a common database alone is insufficient for achieving integration. The all-embracing nature of the CIM wheel reflects the idea pro- moted by CASA/SME that CIM must be viewed as a concept embracing the company as a whole. The Outer Ring The common business administrative tasks related to CIM are located on the outer ring of the wheel. They primarily form the company's connection to the outside world. Data pro- cessing applications can be found in the most diverse areas. Most software systems applied in these areas were originally self-styled develop- ments, which are increasingly being replaced with standard commercial software packages. Currently, this software is installed primarily on mainframes. Overlaps of its functionality exist mainly with the software of the produc- tion planning and control. The Inner Ring Functions related to the operational perfor- mance of the company are located on the inner ring of the wheel. Data processing applications for the development and design area are CAD simulations; analysis programs, such as the finite element method (FEM); and drawing storage and management, such as group tech- nology (GT). DESIGN007 To read the rest of this article, which appeared in the March 2019 issue of SMT007 Magazine, click here. To break these limits, the Yale researchers created a device that consists of a series of waveguides. Light and microwave frequencies are sent through the device, and the light wends its way through alternating suspended and clamped waveguides on a single chip. This creates a positive and negative effect, corresponding to the microwave fre- quency. The light spi- rals in each of the wave- guides to prolong the interac- tion and maximize efficiency. Mechanical vibrations modulate the optical phase in each suspended waveguide spiral. The mechanical vibra- tions essentially shake the photons, dispers- ing them as if they were grains of sand. This accumulates to generate what's known as deep phase modulation. (Source: Yale University) Researchers at Yale University have developed a de- vice that combines mechanical vibration and optical fields to control light particles better. The device has demonstrated an efficient on-chip shap- ing of photons enabled by nanomechanics driven at microwave frequencies. Led by Hong Tang—the Llewellyn West Jones, Jr. Professor of Electri- cal Engineering, Applied Physics, and Physics— the results of their work are published in Nature Photonics. Currently, the most common tech- nique for manipulating photon frequen- cy is with nonlinear optical effects where a strong laser essentially acts as a pump, controlling the color and pulse shape of a signal photon by providing extra photons to mix with the original one. However, the effect is weak, so the process requires a very strong laser, which creates noise. Photonics Breakthrough: Device That Shakes Light

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