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Page 48 of 127

SEPTEMBER 2019 I DESIGN007 MAGAZINE 49 This Is Something You Can Do Today If you want to give this a try, start simply. Try exporting an IPC-2581 file in parallel with your current artwork and assembly files. For exam- ple, download one of the free viewers and look at the files after they are generated, or send both to your fabrication and assembly supply chain vendors for feedback. You can also eval- uate the information provided back to you and look at how to best optimize the fabrication and assembly process going forward. Next, get involved and join a group, such as IPC. Becoming a member is free for you and/ or your organization. You can also visit www. for expert advice; you are not alone! And once you have had a chance to see the benefits, communicate the value to others. Pull together an internal team—including IT, manufacturing, procurement, component en- gineering, etc.—to develop a plan for Industry 4.0. Do a proof of concept. Then, document your process and share with others both inter- nally and those getting started on their own journey to adoption. DESIGN007 A special thanks to Gary Carter, ECAD proj- ect manager at XPLM, for all of his help and in- sight regarding the value that IPC-2581 brings to both customers and manufacturers. Linda Mazzitelli is the product management director at PTC responsible for ECAD design data management, visualization, and ECAD partner management. The quantum Hall effect (QHE), which was previously known for two-dimensional (2D) systems, was predict- ed to be possible for three-dimensional (3D) systems by Bertrand Halperin in 1987. However, the theory was not proven until recently by researchers from the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) and their re- search collaborators from around the globe. SUTD's experimental collaborator, the Southern Univer- sity of Science and Technology (SUSTech) in China, has been working on a unique material known as ZrTe5 since 2014. This material can satisfy the required conditions and exhibit the signatures of 3D QHE. In the research published in Nature, the researchers show that when the material is cooled to a very low tem- perature while under a moderate magnetic field, its longi- tudinal resistivity drops to zero, indicating that the mate- rial transforms from a metal to an insulator. This is due to the electronic interactions where the electrons redistrib- ute themselves and form a periodic density wave along the magnetic field direction called the charge density wave. "This change would usually freeze the electron mo- tion, and the material becomes insulating, disallowing the electron to flow through the interior of the material. However, using this unique material, the electrons can move through the surfaces, giving a Hall resistivity quan- tized by the wavelength of the charge density wave," ex- plained co-author Professor Zhang Liyuan from SUSTech. "We can expect that the discovery of 3D QHE will lead to new breakthroughs in our knowledge of physics and provide a cornucopia of new physical effects. This new knowledge will also provide us new opportunities for practical technological development," said co-author As- sistant Professor Yang Shengyuan from SUTD. (Source: SUTD) Researchers Demonstrate 3D Quantum Hall Effect for the First Time

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