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OCTOBER 2019 I DESIGN007 MAGAZINE 91 er this subject matter, so new designers and EEs don't know where to start or what to ask. Ques- tions must be asked and answered by the stake- holders who define the applications, constrain the cost, supply the materials, and perform the work. This exchange can only happen with an investment of time to meet, discuss, and sort out the applications and constraints. The man - ufacturing stakeholders are the subject-matter experts, so anyone tasked with the design func- tion should communicate directly with the ma- terials stakeholders, process stakeholders, and manufacturing stakeholders to make sure that all of those aspects are appropriately addressed in the design. Shaughnessy: Is there anything you'd like to add? Dack: I would like to give a nod to so many of the standards organizations and suppliers and manufacturers in the rigid and flex seg- ments that are making outstanding efforts to connect with the designers and engineers out there. There is certainly a gap in flex design education and training, but the efforts of the PCB industry to reach out and connect with the designers are not going unnoticed. At our last IPC CID/CID+ training classes, a major supplier of laminate materials was happy to provide our classes with a "lunch and learn" presentation to present their laminates. PCB manufacturing companies are opening their doors more than ever to provide open house events for designers to come in and ex- perience the manufacturing world first-hand. And last but not least, we must recognize the PCB layout tool providers that are advancing their tools to provide flex design capabilities in 3D, sponsor training events, and publish use- ful design books and articles. Designers ought to know by now that there have been massive efforts by EDA tool companies to synergize with laminate suppliers and manufacturers to incorporate design data into the tools for live access during design, and all of this is helping. Thank you! Shaughnessy: Thank you as well, Kelly. See you on the road. FLEX007 A team of researchers at Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has invented a coating that overcomes some of lithium metal battery' defects, such as short life expectancy. In laboratory tests, the coating significantly extend - ed the battery's life. It also dealt with the combustion issue by greatly limiting the tiny needle-like structures, or dendrites, that pierce the separator between the bat- tery's positive and negative sides. In addition to ruining the battery, dendrites can create a short cir- cuit within the battery's flamma- ble liquid. "We're addressing the holy grail of lithium metal batteries," said Zhenan Bao, a professor of chemical engineering, who is se - nior author of the paper along with Yi Cui, professor of materials science and engineering and of photon sci- ence at SLAC. Lithium metal batteries can hold at least one-third more power per pound as lithium-ion batteries do and are significantly lighter because they use lightweight lithium for the positively charged end rather than heavi - er graphite. The biggest drag on electric vehicles is that their batteries spend about one- fourth of their energy carrying themselves around; that gets to the heart of EV range and cost. The group is now refining their coating design to increase ca - pacity retention and testing cells over more cycles. (Source: Stanford University) New Coating Developed by Stanford Researchers Brings Lithium Metal Battery Closer to Reality

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