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Page 59 of 113

60 PCB007 MAGAZINE I NOVEMBER 2019 but instead, went to the circuit workshop in the Shanghai No. 20 Radio Factory. Since then, I have fallen in love with this industry. In the 1960s—without information, equip- ment, and technology—we manually produced single-sided PCBs for seven-tube and eight- tube semiconductor radios. At that time, the width of the line was about 0.8 mm, and the aperture was over 1.0 mm. They were the sim- plest, low-level PCBs, but they made headlines in major domestic newspapers at that time. In the 1970s, we produced PCBs for the Na- tional 905 Computer B. At that time, the min- imum line width/spacing was 0.5 mm, the minimum borehole diameter was 0.8 mm, the double-sided panel had only 22 gold-plated plugs, the maximum size of the plate surface was only 12 cm x 8 cm, and six layers made up the maximum multilayer PCB. Back then, the metal holes were completely manual work; there was so much manual work. We worked day and night. Even during the Spring Festival, we continuously worked 72 hours throughout the night before Lunar New Year's Eve. Lu Zhiyang, Wu Kedong, and I set up a "three-in-one" innovation team to reconfig- ure the whole factory. Without any informa- tion or references, we relied on our passion for printed boards to guide us. We designed and manufactured equipment and processes by ourselves. We successfully developed semi- automatic printing presses and ferric chlo- ride regeneration equipment and etchers. The semi-automatic continuous production line of point-to-line connection, which was suggested by the former factory director Sha Ancai, was realized. For this reason, the Ministry of Elec- tronics and Shanghai Economic Commission held an unprecedented on-site conference on technological innovation at our Shanghai No. 20 Radio Factory. In the early 1980s, the localization project of color TV sets successfully introduced 21 pro- duction lines from abroad. More than 10 young people from Shanghai No. 20 Radio Factory went to Japan in two batches for 61-day intern- ships. A fully automatic, one-sided PCB pro- duction line was introduced by the Panasonic Corporation of Japan, and the first one-sided PCB production line in China was completed. A brand new PCB introduction workshop had been established. At that time, materials were all imported; even the pens and double-sided adhesive paper for repairing boards had not yet been produced in China. Forming the Association In the 1980s, domestic PCBs developed rap- idly, especially from local state-owned enter- prises to school-run workshops and then to township enterprises—for example, there were the following: Shanghai No. 20 Radio Factory, Dalian No. 14 Radio Factory, Hangzhou San- lian, Shantou Goworld, Shennan Circuits, Wu- jin Electronic Accessories Factory, Qiandeng Suhang Electronic, Hebei Hangling, etc. We all found that the industry was developing in a disorganized way, and each company was charting its own path. Product standards, pro- cess specifications, environmental protection, and quality assurance were unreachable by these companies. Led by Shanghai No. 20 Radio Factory and 15 units of the Ministry of Electronics, the CP- CA was established in 1990 mainly for three Three Hairs was the name of a popular comic character played by Wang Longji in the 1949 movie adaptation of The Winter of Three Hairs, the story of a street urchin with a bald head save for three thin strands of hair.

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