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72 PCB007 MAGAZINE I MAY 2020 tion than the PTH via test sample; like the con- nector solutions, these solutions should not be recommended in planarity critical designs. In conclusion, as PCB technologies be- come denser with smaller feature sizes and increased speed requirements, it will become necessary to use non-standard via structures in your manufacturing processes. As we have pointed out, the interconnect method should be carefully selected based upon the custom- ers' electrical and mechanical requirements. If the interconnect is properly selected, not only will it perform as expected in your customers' end product, but it could also improve your manufacturing yields. Hopefully, this will pro- vide you something to consider when thinking about advanced interconnect methods. PCB007 References 1. Tektronix, "Introduction to VNA Basics," 2017. 2. Cadence PCB Solutions, "Insertion Loss vs. Return Loss: Signal Transmission and Reflection," January 15, 2020. 3. R.C. Dorf, The Electrical Engineering Handbook: Second Edition, CRC Press, 1997. Brandon Sherrieb is currently the process engineering manager at Integrated Test Corporation in Dallas, Texas. He has a degree in mechanical engineering and 15 years of process engineering experience in the industry with a focus on mechanical and thermal processes. Steve Karas has over 10 years in PCB manufacturing experience working across a number of market segments. He had been a process engineer for many PCB processes, as well as a product engineer for new product releases. Steve is currently an engineering manager responsible for product development, which includes planning, technical customer engagement, NPI, NTI, and roadmap development. Steve attended the University at Buffalo with a chemistry degree and has received advanced training in various manufacturing methods, such as Lean Six Sigma techniques. Electronics manufacturing contributes powerfully to the U.S. economy, according to a new report released by IPC. The electronics manufacturing sector directly supports more than 1.3 million U.S. jobs. For every U.S. electronics manufacturing job, three other jobs are supported in the U.S. economy, contributing to a total of 5.3 million American jobs. Also, the industry indirectly and directly contributes $714 billion (3.7%) to U.S. GDP. John Mitchell, president and CEO of IPC, stated, "More than most industries, we are vertically and horizontally inte- grated across many markets, and the health of our industry is key to the overall success of the U.S. economy." Sixteen states, led by California and Texas, account for about 75% of di- rect electronics manufacturing jobs in the United States. California alone has nearly 275,000 direct electronics manufacturing jobs and almost $197 billion in direct output, accounting for 3.4% of California's GDP. The coronavirus epidemic is being felt by the U.S. elec- tronics manufacturing industry. While manufacturers and suppliers report several con- cerns, they appear most concerned about weaker demand. Some 44% reported they are most concerned about supply shortages, while just over one-third said they are worried about worker shortages. Many manufacturers issued temporary layoffs in March and April, and now a majority of re- spondents report they expect to bring furloughed workers back to factories by the end of June 2020. However, one in five said furloughed workers would not return. (Source: IPC) Electronics Manufacturing Supports More Than 5.3 Million U.S. Jobs and Almost 4% of U.S. GDP, Says IPC

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