PCB007 Magazine


Issue link: https://iconnect007.uberflip.com/i/1299286

Contents of this Issue


Page 53 of 103

54 PCB007 MAGAZINE I OCTOBER 2020 surface must be clean and pristine. For pre- treatment, the parts go through a cleaner and a micro-etch in a horizontal conveyorized man- ner; this is followed by a flux dip before intro- duction into the molten solder. Inadequate pre- treatment results in dewetting of the solder on the copper surface. For OSP, the same principle of cleaning the copper surface applies. OSP is usually run in continuous horizontal equipment. OSP is spe- cific to the copper surface and forms a com- plex with the clean copper. Immersion silver, as the name of the process implies, is an immersion or displacement re- action. It is driven by electromotive force. Pre- treatment involves a cleaner and a micro-etch. The micro-etch is hydrogen-peroxide-based to produce a smoother copper morphology. A smoother topography eliminates the probabil- ity of bubble voids at the IMC after soldering. Immersion tin pretreatment is based on cleaning and micro-etching. It is important that the immersion reaction initiates uniformly for better continuity of the tin deposit. Multilayer Finishes The pretreatment for ENIG, ENEPIG, and EPIG/EPAG has been addressed in detail in a previous column titled "ENIG and the Plating Process." What applied to ENIG is the same for ENEPIG and EPIG/EPAG. Conclusion Pretreatment plays a key role in the success of the process that it is designed for. Special attention to the front end of the line (pretreat- ment) is needed. Adhere to the supplier's in- structions per the datasheet. A compromised or incomplete pretreatment could have dev- astating results that may lead to scrapping products. PCB007 George Milad is the national accounts manager for technology at Uyemura. To read past columns or contact Milad, click here. MAS features an AI Captain built by ProMare and IBM de- velopers, which gives MAS the ability to sense, think, and make decisions at sea with no human captain or onboard crew. The new class of marine AI is underpinned by IBM's latest advanced edge computing systems, automation software, computer vision technology, and Red Hat open- source software. "Able to scan the horizon for possible hazards, make in- formed decisions and change its course based on a fusion of live data, the Mayflower Autonomous Ship has more in common with a modern bank than its 17 th century name- sake," said Andy Stanford- Clark, chief technology officer, IBM U.K. and Ireland. «With its ability to keep running in the face of the most challenging conditions, this small ship is a microcosm for every aspiring 21st-century business." (Source: IBM) Ocean research non-profit ProMare and IBM have com- pleted and launched the Mayflower Autonomous Ship (MAS), an AI and solar-powered marine research vessel which will traverse oceans gathering vital environmental data. Following two years of design, construction, and training of its AI models, the new fully-autonomous trimaran was lifted into the waters off the coast of Plymouth, England. Designed to provide a safe, flexible, and cost-effective way of gathering data about the ocean, the new-generation Mayflower promises to transform oceanography by working in tandem with scientists and other autonomous vessels to help understand critical is- sues such as global warming, micro-plastic pollution, and marine mammal conserva- tion. ProMare is coordinating the scientific studies working with IBM Research and a num- ber of leading scientific orga- nizations. Mayflower Autonomous Ship Launches

Articles in this issue

Links on this page

Archives of this issue

view archives of PCB007 Magazine - PCB007-Oct2020