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28 PCB007 MAGAZINE I NOVEMBER 2020 require careful evaluation of the primary met- allization processes needed for a robust, reli- able process for these materials. The evolu- tion of interconnect features needed to route these high-speed signals and enable contin- ued miniaturization will require new electro- lytic copper plating chemistries for metalliza- tion with application specific capabilities. Older electrolytic plating chemistries, such as conventional DC plating, and equipment designs will not have the capabilities to meet the critical requirements of these new inter- connect features. It will be critical to evalu- ate the types of panels to be fabricated and features to be metallized. Consideration of things like the type of feature or mix of fea - tures to be metallized, line width and spac- ing, trace profile, and feature coplanarity— as well as the type of equipment needed to apply these technologies—will be crucial in a fabricator's decision on what type of board technology they offer. PCB007 William Bowerman is the director of primary metallization at MacDermid Alpha Electronics Solutions. Richard Bellemare is the director of electrolytic metallization at MacDermid Alpha Electronics Solutions. When workers for Lockheed Martin began assembling the crew seats for a spacecraft designed to return astro- nauts to the moon and pave the way for human explora- tion to Mars, they had no need for paper instructions or tab- let screens to work from. Everything they needed to see— from animations of how pieces fit together to engineering drawings to torque values for tightening bolts—was visible in HoloLens 2 devices that they wore. The mixed reality headsets left their hands free to ma - nipulate hardware. Voice commands guided them through every step, with holographic instructions overlaid on the relevant parts of the four seats that will be installed inside the crew module of the Orion spacecraft, which Lockheed Martin is building to support NASA's Artemis program to carry humans to the moon and beyond. "They didn't have to refer back to a computer screen or paper drawings during that entire activity," said Shelley Pe - terson, Lockheed Martin's principal investigator for aug- mented and mixed reality. "Out on the shop floor, they can put on the HoloLens 2 device, power it up, and it has all the content that they need to figure out how to do that task overlaid right there on the structure." Building a spacecraft requires millions of tasks, each with zero room for error, from attaching electrical cables in the correct pathways to lubricating joints and precisely locat - ing thousands of tiny devices that measure how the craft performs under stress. Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor building Orion, has employed HoloLens 2 on a variety of assembly tasks for the spacecraft that will be used in NASA's Artemis II mission, the first to carry a crew of astronauts aboard Orion. For some jobs that require lots of precise measuring by hand —such as marking locations for hundreds of fasteners on Orion's spacecraft adapter jettison fairings—technicians using holographic instructions have finished those repeti - tive tasks 90% faster. The mixed reality headsets have also all but eliminated assembly mistakes, Peterson said. Lockheed Martin has experienced zero errors or rework requests on tasks in which workers were assisted by Holo - Lens headsets, which the company first deployed at the end of 2017, she said. (Source: Microsoft Innovation Stories) How HoloLens 2 Is Helping Build NASA's Orion Spacecraft

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