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64 SMT007 MAGAZINE I MARCH 2021 On-Off On-off control is the easiest feedback control to implement, but the slowest to react because it ignores the magnitude, speed of change, and length of the error signal (Figure 4). magnitude of the disturbance (proportional), how long it has been off the setpoint (integral), and how fast the disturbance changes (deriva- tive). e characteristics of common control- ler responses are seen in Figure 3. Figure 2: Control response dynamics to a change in setpoint. Figure 3: Characteristics of common controller responses.

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