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OCTOBER 2021 I DESIGN007 MAGAZINE 21 with people and get input. You send an email, and you get a response. But if you discuss this with CAD programmers, you may say, "We could do it this way, and we could do it that way." But they say, "I don't care, just tell me what I have to do." ey oen don't want to discuss how. ey must implement something, and to do that they must write the Gerber file, and they don't want to spend time on discussing how it the spec should be; they just want to implement. Stans: Yeah, and they don't have to make their money with a fancy output; they make their money with fancy new tools of calculating impedance or whatever they need to have in that CAD system. It's the same with Altium. ey talked about it for years, and now they have this department especially oriented to creating a decent output, for which I'm very grateful. Finally. Because that's what you need to make your CAD system more performant toward manufacturing. But it took a very, very long time before people saw the light in this. It's not sexy. You don't sell any CAD systems with this. Tavernier: Gerber is the PDF of the electron- ics industry. ose PDF files, do you really care what's inside of them? When you send the PDF file, the other side should be able to read it, and you don't bother whether it's this or that, you only vaguely bother with which version it is. Shaughnessy: at's a great way to wrap it up, gentlemen. anks for you input on this. Tavernier: ank you, Andy. Always a pleasure. DESIGN007 Karel Tavernier is managing director at Ucamco. Dirk Stans is manager partner at Eurocircuits N.V. Using a D-Wave quantum-annealing computer as a testbed, scientists at Los Alamos National Labo- ratory have shown that it is possible to isolate so- called emergent magnetic monopoles, a class of quasiparticles, creating a new approach to devel- oping "materials by design." "We wanted to study emergent magnetic mono- poles by exploiting the collective dynamics of qubits," said Cristiano Nisoli, a lead Los Alamos author of the study. "Magnetic monopoles, as ele- mentary particles with only one magnetic pole, have been hypothesized by many, and famously by Dirac, but have proved elusive so far." They realized an artificial spin ice by using the superconducting qubits of the quantum machine as a magnetic building block. This work demonstrates unam- biguously that magnetic mono- poles not only can emerge from an underlying spin structure, but can be controlled, isolated and studied precisely. "These results also have technological conse- quences particularly relevant to DOE and Los Ala- mos, specifically in the idea of materials-by-design, to produce future nanomagnets that might show advanced and desirable functionality for sensing and computation," noted Alejandro Lopez-Bezanilla of Los Alamos, who works on the D-Wave processor and assembled the team. Nisoli, moreover, suggests that beside fruitful applications, these results could perhaps also pro- vide food for thought to fundamental physics. "Could even 'real' particles and interactions that we consider fundamental, such as leptons and quarks, instead be con- strued as an emergent, higher- level description of a more complex lower-level binary substratum, much like our monopoles emerging from a bunch of qubits?" (Source: Los Alamos National Labo- ratory) Emergent Magnetic Monopoles Isolated Using Quantum-Annealing Computer

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