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36 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I JANUARY 2022 Feature Article by Michael Gay ISOLA Editor's note: e following is an excerpt from forthcoming book , The Printed Cir- cuit Designer's Guide to... High Performance Materials. Electrification in the automotive sector is strongly driven by environmental concerns and especially the reduction of carbon-dioxide emis- sions. is has a major impact on our mobility choices and leads to significant changes within the car itself. e combustion engine is replaced by an electric drive (or drives) and a battery package. is has an effect on the whole pow- ertrain, power distribution systems, and con- trols—including AI and communications for autonomous driving. Historically, the voltage levels in combus- tion engine vehicles have been 12 or 24 VDC. at level was raised to 48 VDC to enable the operation of all the ever-increasing electri- cal consumption requirements. But with the electrification of the powertrain, the voltage range requirements are now 400, 800, or in the future, even 1000 VDC and higher are reached. 1 Different components and devices of the drive train and the rest of the car operate at different voltage levels. us, in addition to battery monitoring and managing electronics, inverters and converters are needed within the powertrain, which can step voltages to differ- ent levels or invert AC to DC and vice versa. Depending on the technology, the electron- ics used within the power train must with- stand the higher voltage levels. In addition to isolation on surface and within the boards, which is usually a matter of spacing, sufficient CAF resistance of the base material must be ensured. HSD and Automotive CAF Testing Typical CAF test conditions for the comput- ing, communication and automotive indus- tries are 15 VDC to 100 V (DC) and 500- or 1000-hour test duration. Due to the high volt- age levels within the electrical power train, the 100 V CAF test is no longer sufficient to model the long-term reliability. CAF testing Automotive Electrification

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