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46 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I JANUARY 2022 in the system. For resistive components and the PDN in your PCB, some power drop is unavoidable and will lead to a temperature increase in the system. e electronics industry has addressed these aspects of high voltage design and many more by creating industry standards. ese stan- dards are intended to ensure the reliability and safety of high voltage power products. Industry Standards on High-Voltage PCB Design Some of the important industry standards on high voltage circuit boards are the IPC 2221, IPC 2152, and IEC 60950-1 (now merged with IEC 60065-1 into the new IEC 62368-1 stan- dard). When you have the best set of PCB design tools, the requirements in these impor- tant design standards can be encoded in your PCB project as design rules. is helps you design to the level of reliability and safety required in high voltage PCB designs. • e IPC 2221 standard and IEC/UL standards state the required spacing between different conductors in a high- speed PCB as a function of the potential difference between them. An IPC 2221 calculator can help you automatically satisfy this standard. • Two particular elements that need to be spaced properly in a high voltage PCB are traces and pads. Keeping these elements carefully separated prevents ESD at high voltage. • Advanced high voltage circuit boards can be designed on a range of possible materials. Some unique materials include metal-core PCBs and ceramics. High-Voltage vs High-Current PDB Design High voltage PCB designs are oen high cur- rent PCB designs except in some odd cases. For example, equipment like power supplies and high-power regulators need to receive a high Figure 1: The spacing between these conductors should be carefully checked to prevent ESD during operation.

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