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40 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I JULY 2022 A field solver is the engine behind signal and power integrity analysis. You never see it, but it performs all the magic of simulation. In its elementary form, the field solver can employ Maxwell's equations to calculate the parasitic elements of a solution space. is method is referred to as 2D extraction and is used to analyze and synthesize a stackup to achieve a target single-ended or differential imped- ance. e velocity of propagation can also be extracted to perform signal integrity analysis. A field solver can be used as a stand-alone tool or as part of a simulation environment. In this month's column, I will look at 2D field solvers. An electromagnetic (EM) field is produced when a logic driver delivers a high-speed, fast rise-time pulse into a transmission line. e EM wave propagates along the length of the trace radiating into the surrounding dielectric material and coupling energy to nearby trace segments. ese EM fields are not restricted to the multilayer substrate and if proper care is not taken may emit radiation causing elec- tromagnetic interference. If the impedance of the driver and load do not match the transmis- sion line, then reflections occur, and radiation is created. Hence, the need for impedance control. 2D Field Solver–An Essential Tool for High-speed PCB Design Beyond Design Feature Column by Barry Olney, IN-CIRCUIT DESIGN PTY LTD / AUSTRALIA Figure 1: A 2D boundary element method field solver. (Source: iCD Stackup Planner)

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