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8 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I JULY 2022 e "le shi" concept has been underway for at least five years, as EDA tool providers offer more powerful functionality earlier in the stages of PCB design and layout. is month, we focus on one tool that's been shiing le- ward for some time now: the field solver. Once the domain of the experienced SI engi- neer, these computational tools—or at least some of their functions—are now available in PCB design soware tools. With improved user interfaces, field solvers are being used by PCB designers and design engineers, many of whom have not mastered electromagnetics theory. Electromagnetic theory all starts with James Clark Maxwell, whose four differential equa- tions form the framework for understanding e-mag theory. Field solvers are complicated programs that solve a subset of Maxwell's equa- tions. Field solvers come in 2D, 2.5D, and 3D formats, and use several methods, such as the finite element method (FEM), finite difference (FD), and boundary element method (BEM) to extract parasitic circuit models. When we first started planning this issue on field solvers, one thing became clear right away: Field solvers can be fairly difficult tools to use, even for veteran SI specialists, and it's The Shaughnessy Report by Andy Shaughnessy, I-CONNECT007 With Field Solvers, GIGO Hurts

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