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44 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I SEPTEMBER 2022 is series of columns has explored multiple approaches to achieving a digital transforma- tion within the electronics design process. is time I'd like to look at design and collabora- tion across multiple domains (e.g., electronics, electrical, and mechanical) and how a digital thread enables that. Higher system speeds have necessitated consideration of signal propagation delay and quality not just within electronics, but through wire harnesses. Tighter form factors have minimized the typical "board in a box," where a simple rectangular board had enough clear- ance that there were rarely problems. Rigid- flex circuits oen stress cross-domain ECAD/ MCAD design with their multiple stackups and bendability. Even if form/fit is achieved, high- performance systems with significant heat dis- sipation need to ensure adequate air/fluid flow through the structure. Emerging technologies like additive manu- facturing will drive further alignment between domains; for example, there is the potential to print interconnects in automotive body panels instead of using cabling and wire harnesses or electronics molded to the contours of instru- mentation panels. e worlds of the electronics, electrical, and mechanical domains are similar and unique at the same time. Electronics design (hardware systems) and electrical design (the wiring between hardware to create larger electronic systems) naturally work together and have oen been confused since they're both called "ECAD," and both employ electrical engineers who start a design with a schematic. Both Optimizing Co-design Across Multiple Domains Digital Transformation by David Wiens, SIEMENS EDA Figure 1: Multi-domain design flow.

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