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SEPTEMBER 2022 I DESIGN007 MAGAZINE 73 to solve it. Foundries together with advanced packaging solutions are clearly needed as a part of resurgent U.S. infrastructure, but also forward-thinking capabilities such as addi- tive and hybrid electronics to prevent another shortage down the line, ensuring instead that this new electronic paradigm we're building is one that lasts. DESIGN007 References 1. "Intel CEO now expects chip shortage to last into 2024," by Kevin Stankiewicz, CNBC, April 29, 2022. 2. "The Chip Shortage is Easing—But Only For Some," by Will Knight, Wired, July 25, 2022. Malcolm Thompson is executive director of NextFlex. cate and provide hands-on experience so that we can be ready to staff the jobs of the future. We're already seeing this happen across the country at schools such as Lorain County Com- munity College in Ohio, Evergreen Valley Col- lege in California, and Drake State Community and Technical College in Alabama introducing learning programs for both professionals seek- ing more advanced manufacturing experience and early learning programs designed to gen- erate interest in the field among K-12 students. We Have a Chance to Build Something That Goes Beyond Chips e ultimate takeaway is there will be addi- tional infrastructure opportunities outside of today's supply chain. is will include oppor- tunities for equipment manufacturers, materi- als companies, infrastructure providers, and more who recognize that the challenge the chip shortage presents represents an opportunity By Jorge Gonzalez and Luke Roberto In our previous column, "Accelerate Your PCB Designs with Machine Learning," we explained how artificial intelligence (AI) is an umbrella term embracing technolo- gies that empower machines to simulate human behavior, while machine learning (ML) is a subset of AI that allows machines to auto- matically learn from past data and events without explicitly being programmed to do so. As ML sys- tems become increasingly complex and capable, the distinction between AI and ML is becoming increas- ingly blurred. We also discussed how we are currently in the early years of the second era of AI, and how ML has started to appear in PCB layout applications. Remem- bering that we are still in the early days of ML deploy- ment in the PCB space, we talked about the types of tasks ML can help with today, such as detecting when we start to perform repetitive low-level activi- ties and assuming the responsibility of implement- ing these tedious, time-consuming, and error-prone tasks, thereby allowing us to stop doing the dull and boring things and freeing us up to start doing only the cool and inter- esting things. Remember that the first iPhone didn't appear until 2007 (15 years ago), the modern era of AI and ML only kicked off circa 2012 (10 years ago), and that consumer VR in the form of the Oculus Rift made its first appearance in 2016 (only six years ago). Who among our number would have predicted any of these applications and technologies 20 years ago? So, how accurate will any predictions we make be here? Well, let's take some guesses, and then in 2030 and 2040, we'll look back to see how well we did. To read the entire column, click here. Download The System Designer's Guide to… System Analysis by Brad Griffin along with its companion book The Cadence System Design Solutions Guide. You can also view other titles in our full I-007eBook library here. All Systems Go Time Traveling to 2030 for ML-Augmented PCB Design

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