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68 SMT007 MAGAZINE I NOVEMBER 2022 nology, it allows the architect to say, "Let me take this function and make it on this technol- ogy node, and this other function on a differ- ent technology node." en I can put those all into one small unit. For the end user it looks as one unit, but as we manufacture it, it's inter- nally, four or five different blocks. at's a ben- efit of disaggregation. Higher performance in a small form factor. Now the question was whether there's one solution or multiple. I believe there will be many different solutions. Different use cases— whether to build personal computers, servers for data centers, products for aerospace, auto- motive, medical devices, communications— will require variants of packaging technology. The y have dif f erent f unc t ionalit y and requirements, so it will require slightly dif- ferent building blocks and technologies that come together. e key part of the CHIPS Act is whether we can set up a pipeline to allow for innovation on the front end, and then be able to pull that through into manufacturing, using a mix and match of those different technolo- gies. ese process steps could be panel, wafer or unit based, or combinations thereof. Johnson: Many of our readers are PCB fabri- cators and assemblers. Do you see a future for them in advanced packaging? Rucker: Yes, absolutely. As advanced packaging becomes more fab-like, some key challenges are line width, improving cleanliness require- ments, and developing new material. Anyone who looks at this and says, "I just want to take my current equipment, convert it, and run advanced substrates," will probably have a very difficult challenge. ey should look at the opportunities to adapt and evolve their business model. Are there radical new technologies where they can develop innovation to deliver value to the cus- tomer? ose packages still go onto a board that eventually goes into the system. Now what that board looks like obviously depends upon the end use. e same way that the silicon technol- ogy nodes keep on scaling with Moore's Law, now packaging is following at Moore's Law. e question is whether PCB fabricators and assemblers can scale and deliver new capabili- ties and functionality. Can they develop inno- vative thermal solutions? Can they acceler- ate that development? Can you take the board industry and economically scale it? Johnson: Isn't that bringing the board fab indus- try into the process of maintaining Moore's Law? Rucker: Yes. Johnson: Can one go that far? Rucker: I would say so. If you step back as a con- sumer, we want more performance, a smaller form factor, faster, and at a lower cost. Can the board industry accelerate and move at almost the same pace? It's very challenging from an economic perspective, but that's what makes it interesting. Johnson: Well, there's the call to action right there. ank you, Tom.

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