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NOVEMBER 2022 I DESIGN007 MAGAZINE 37 Additional content from Siemens Digital Industries Software: • The Printed Circuit Assembler's Guide to... Smart Data: Using Data to Improve Manufacturing • The Printed Circuit Assembler's Guide to… Advanced Manufacturing in the Digital Age • Siemens' 12-part, on-demand webinar series "Implementing Digital Twin Best Practices From Design Through Manufacturing." • RealTime with... Siemens and Computrol: Achieving Operational Excellence in Electronics Manufacturing detail in a podcast series. I'll also be sharing my opinions from my career experiences on the diverse topics of printed circuit engineer- ing on my social media channels. DESIGN007 References 1. A Manual of Engineering Drawing for Students and Draftsmen, 9th Ed., by French & Vierck, 1960, p. 487. Stephen V. Chavez is senior product marketing manager, Siemens EDA, and chairman of PCEA. To read past columns, click here. The carrier concentration and conductivity in p-type monovalent copper semiconductors can be significantly enhanced by adding alkali metal impu- rities, as shown recently by Tokyo Tech researchers. Doping with isovalent and larger-sized alkali metal ions effectively increased the free charge carrier concentration and the mechanism was unraveled by their theoretical calculations. Their carrier dop- ing technology enables high carrier concentration and high mobility p-type thin films to be prepared from the solution process, with photovoltaic device applications. To propose a new carrier doping design for p-type doping in CuI, researchers from Japan and USA recently focused on the alkali impurity effect, which has been empirically used for hole doping in copper monovalent semiconductors, copper oxide (Cu 2 O) and Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 . In a novel approach outlined in a study published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the team, led by Dr. Kosuke Matsuzaki from Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), Japan, dem- onstrated experimentally that p-type doping with alkali ion impurities, which has the same valence as copper but larger size, can improve conductivity in Cu(I)-based semiconductors. The theoretical analy- ses show that the complex defects, which are com- posed of alkali ion impurity and vacancies of cop- per ions, are an origion of hole generation (p-type conductivity). Based on the p-type doping mechanism to form acceptor-type Cu vacancy defect complex, the team investigated larger alkaline ions, such as potassium, rubidium, and cesium (Cs), as acceptor impurities in γ-CuI. Indeed, the development could be a major leap forward for copper(I)-based semiconductors, and could soon lead to their practical applications in solar cells and optoelectronic devices. (Source: Tokyo Institute of Technology) Novel Carrier Doping in p-type Semiconductors

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