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60 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I DECEMBER 2022 Introduction One of the biggest challenges facing PCB designers is not understanding the cost drivers in the PCB manufacturing process. is article is the latest in a series that will discuss these cost drivers (from the PCB manufacturer's perspective) and the design decisions that will impact product reliability. Final Finishes Final finishes provide a surface for the com- ponent assembler to solder, wire bond, or con- ductively attach a component pad or lead to a pad, hole, or area of a PCB. e other use for a final finish is to provide a known contact resis- tance and life cycle for connectors, keys, or switches. e primary purpose of a final finish is to create electrical and thermal continuity with a surface of the PCB. ere are several final finishes in use in the industry today. ese include: • ENIG (electroless nickel, immersion gold) • ENIPIG (electroless nickel, immersion palladium, immersion gold) • ENEPIG (electroless nickel, electroless palladium, immersion gold) • ImmAg (immersion silver) • ImmSn (immersion tin) • Sulfamate nickel/hard or so gold (electrolytic nickel/gold) • HASL (hot air solder leveling) › SnPb (63/37 tin/lead) › LF (lead-free) • OSP (organic solderability preservative) Final f inishes are pr imar ily application driven, so there are several considerations that DFM 101 Final Finishes: Electrolytic Nickel/Gold Article by Anaya Vardya AMERICAN STANDARD CIRCUITS

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