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JANUARY 2023 I SMT007 MAGAZINE 49 can service Silicon Valley and Southern Cali- fornia fabless chip makers. Significant investment already being made by US Government to increase domestic capa- bility: • Intel, TSMC, and Samsung (top three) all working on 2024 foundries to service fabless demand • TSMC: 5 nm node, Arizona plus potential 5 more in US. Announced $12B investment • Intel: $20B in 2 new plants, Arizona • Samsung: $17B 5 nm node, Austin, Texas • Note: ere are concerns by TSMC with domestic NA capability/capacity, as this is likely to slow progress and increase prices 7 SMT007 References 1. S. Moore, "How and When the Chip Shortage Will End, in 4 Charts," IEEE Spectrum, June 29, 2021. 2. C. Dieseldorff, "Semiconductor Manufacturing Trends and Forecasts," Virtual SEMI Market Sympo- sium, July 14, 2021. 3. IEEE Spectrum, "How and when the chip short- age will end, in 4 charts", June 2021. 4. F. Kim, "SK Siltron to Expand Wafer Production Lines,", July 2, 2021. 5. Bloomberg, "TSMC to Spend $100 Billion Over Three Years to Grow Capacity", March 2021. 6. IBM, "IBM Unveils World's First 2 Nanometer Chip Technology, Opening a New Frontier for Semi- conductors", May 6, 2021. 7. Forbes, "Intel's Possible Rationale For Buying GlobalFoundries, Inc.," July 20, 2021. For quantum computers to surpass their classical counterparts in speed and capacity, their qubits— superconducting circuits that can exist in an infinite combination of binary states—need to be on the same wavelength. Combine qubits together into larger circuit chips, and you end up with a big physi- cal footprint, which means quantum computers take up a lot of physical space. In collaboration with Raytheon BBN Technologies, Wang Fong-Jen Professor James Hone's lab at Columbia Engineering recently demonstrated a supercon- ducting qubit capacitor built with 2D materials, rendering it a fraction of the size of previous capacitors. In the current work, published on November 18 in NanoLetters, Hone's PhD students Abhinandan Antony and Anjaly Rajen- dra sandwiched an insulating layer of boron nitride between two charged plates of superconducting niobium diselenide. The team then combined their capacitors with aluminum circuits to create a chip containing two qubits with an area of 109 square micrometers and just 35 nanometers thick—that's 1,000 times smaller than chips produced under con- ventional approaches. New device designs should be able to shrink things down even further, said Hone, by combining the elements into a single van der Waals stack or by deploying 2D materials for other parts of the circuit. (Source: Columbia University) Shrinking Qubits for Quantum Computing With Atom-thin Materials

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