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78 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I SEPTEMBER 2023 There are probably only a few hundred front-end engineering experts in North America and probably even fewer in the EU. So, where will the new facilities get that expertise? There aren't a sufficient number of training classes or courses in available to teach new potential employees in colleges and universities. How can we mitigate this crisis? The first step is for companies to quit sending manufacturing documentation that requires human intervention. Today's PCB design tools are a far cry from the rudimentary tools we used 30 years ago, but even though the algorithms are now quite clever, they are still fairly basic as far as intelligence goes. Comprehensive design rules can be established to accommodate myriad constraints to limit placement and routing which advise us when we have overstepped the boundaries. Data rates in PCB interconnects are increasing in all signaling protocols (PCIe, DDR, GDDR, Ethernet, USB, SAS, InfiniBand, CEI, OIF, 5G). Most of those high-speed signaling standards have one-lane data rates over 6 Gbps (GT/s) and some up to 112 Gbps with signal spectrum in microwave and even mil- limeter wave bandwidths. In a recent survey on the increasing complexity of electronics design, it was reported that 68% of compa- nies were facing increasing pressure to miniaturize their electronics form factors. This report mirrors global trends seen within the industry. It represents an increased bur- den placed upon the printed circuit board designer to put more functionality into a smaller space, and on the manufacturer to produce with a smaller margin of error. TOP TEN Beyond Design: Integrating AI Into PCB Design Flow 3D Electromagnetic Analysis Dana on Data: Filling the Gap When Tribal Knowledge Runs Out EDITOR'S PICKS Book Excerpt: 'The Printed Circuit Designer's Guide to... Manufacturing Driven Design,' Chapter 2 Dana Korf

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