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30 SMT Magazine • October 2014 nents appear to be ill-suited to assembly as pre- scribed in the graphic. A classic example is the large electrolytic capacitor. One response is to again ask a question: "Why do they have the form factor they do?" The answer appears to be, by and in large, that there were no particular restrictions when the early electronic devices were first being developed and thus they could be any shape that device designer chose. Could they be made to be more amenable to SAFE as- sembly? The answer is from the vantage point of this writer is unequivocally, YES. Consider that new materials in the current nascent age of nanotechnology are coming on line at a prodigious rate. Super capacitors are poised to obviate some batteries and battery technology keeps on getting better on a regular basis. Moreover, with solderless assembly, the battery or capacitor can be made integral with the component carrier without worry because there is no high temperature soldering step to be concerned about. The stacking of chips and packages offers significant advantages. It is easy to assume that if a component de- signer is unconstrained, they will (hopefully) come up with a highly effective design, but they may also just come up with a convenient de- sign. If on the other hand, they are constrained and required to look at the problem/opportu- nity holistically, they are compelled (or should assembLY anD the Quest FOr sOLDer aLLOY-Free eLectrOnics (saFe) continues FEATurE Figure 1. capital equipment List for saFe assembly (Abbreviated list) pick and place Equipment Component placement inspection (Optical) Shearing and punching Equipment Encapsulation Equipment via Formation Technology (Laser or photoimage) Surface preparation Equipment (Chemical and Mechanical) Metalization and plating Equipment Coating Equipment (for photoimage Materials) image development Equipment routing/depanelization Equipment Cleaning Equipment packaging Equipment capital equipment List for traditional manufacture (Abbreviated list) Pcb Fabrication Shearing Equipment drilling Equipment (Mechanical and Laser) Surface preparation Equipment (Chemical and Mechanical) Metalization and plating Equipment photoresist Application Equipment (includes Solder Mask) photoimaging Equipment (Contact and Laser direct print) image development Equipment Lamination Equipment routing Equipment Cleaning Equipment Testing Equipment (Electrical and X-ray) packaging Equipment Pcb assembly Baking Ovens Solder paste Application Equipment (Stencil printer) Solder paste inspection Equipment (Optical or X-ray) pick and place Equipment Component placement inspection (Optical) reflow System (Convection Ovens, vapor phase, Others) Specialty Cleaning Equipment inspection and Test Equipment (Optical X-ray and Electrical) Solder rework and repair Equipment depanelization Equipment packaging Equipment

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