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June 2016 • SMT Magazine 93 most cases more expensive and have slower in- spection cycle times. The proposed method gives 3D analysis ca- pability to the traditional 2D AOI equipment, practically without increasing the financial cost and with no cycle time impact, bringing 2D AOI equipment back into the game of SMT technology. SMT References 1. G. Acciani, G. Brunetti and G. Fornarelli, " A Multiple Neural Network System to Classify Solder Joints on Integrated Circuits," Interna- tional Journal of Computational Intelligence Research (2006) Vol. 2, No 4, pp 337–348. 2. Tae-Hyeon Kim, Tai-Hoon Cho, Young- Shik Moon and Sung-Han Park, "Visual Inspec- tion System for Classification of Solder Joints," Pattern Recognition 32 (1999), pp 565–575. 3. Kuk Won Ko and Hyung Suck Cho, "Sol- der Joints Inspection Using Neural Network and Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification," IEEE 98, pp. 1565–1570. 4. Jiquan Ma, Peijun Ma and Xiaohong Su, "Solder Joints Detection Method Based on Sur- face Recovery," Computer and Information Sci- ence, Vol. 3, No. 2; May 2010. 5. Xuemei Zhang and Gareth Bradshaw, "Sol- id Shape Modeling—Working Toward 3D AOI," SMT Magazine Archive, November 1, 2004. 6. Kwangill Koh, "Identify Lifted Objects using Z-axis Measurement and 3D AOI," SMT Magazine Archive, July 1, 2009. 7. Tae-Hyeon Kim, Tai-Hoon Cho, Young- Shik Moon and Sung-Han Park, "An Automated Visual Inspection of solder Joints Using 2D and 3D Features," IEEE 96, pp. 110–115. 8. Y.K. Ryu and H.S. Cho, "Visual Inspection Scheme for Use in Optical Solder Joint Inspec- tion System," IEEE April, 96, pp. 3259–3264. 9. IPC-A-610E, from Association Connect- ing Electronics Industries. 10. Dr. Malachy Rice, "Using AOI to verify IPC compliance," Agilent Technologies, Dublin, Ireland, Test & Measurement World, 11/1/2004. 11. Pedro M. A. Vitoriano, Tito G. Amaral, Oc- távio Páscoa Dias, "Automatic Optical Inspection for Surface Mounting Devices with IPC-A-610D compliance." IEEE 4/11, 978-1-4244-9843-7. 12. VT-RNS II documentation from OMRON. Pedro M.A. Vitoriano is a product develop- ment electrical engineer at Visteon. To contact Vitoriano, click here. Tito G. Amaral is a professor at ESTSetubal, Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Setubal, Portugal, and at the Institute of Systems and Robotics – Polo Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Scientists at Japan's Hokkaido University are making headway in the fabrication of all-solid- state solar cells that are highly durable and can efficiently convert sunlight into energy. The team employed a method called "atomic layer deposi- tion", which allows scientists to control the depos- it of very thin, uniform layers of materials on top of each other. Using this method, they deposited a thin film of nickel oxide onto a single crystal of titanium dioxide. Gold nanoparticles were intro- duced between the two layers to act like an an- tenna that harvests visible light. The team tested the properties of these fabri- cated devices with and without an intermediary step following the deposition of nickel oxide that involves heating it to very high temperatures and then allowing it to slowly cool – a process called "annealing". Photocurrent generation was successfully ob- served on the all-solid-state photoelectric conver- sion device. The device was found to be highly durable and stable because it does not contain organic components, which have a tendency to degrade over time and under harsh conditions. However, the resultant device's properties are still insufficient for practical use and its efficiency in converting light to energy needs to be improved. Further research is needed to understand the roles of each layer in conducting energy to improve the device's efficiency. Using Solid-state Materials with Gold Nanoantennas for More Durable Solar Cells 3D SOLDER JOINT RECONSTRUCTION ON SMD BASED ON 2D IMAGES

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