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16 The PCB Design Magazine • June 2016 required. Once again it is the space that drives the layout. Sometimes we do think newer ideas and newer technologies are sexy. But sexy may cost more than it is worth. Carefully select the HDI path. Often it is the best option for the added features per square inch derived. Overall cost, reliability of the layout, and assembly should be weighed and understood by all. Shaughnessy: Thank you, Albert. Gaines: Thank you, Andy. PCBDESIGN DESIGNING WITH FINE LINES AND FEATURES but what you can. The part space will drive what you can do. Things do not have to be small to have tight tolerances. We have clients who develop home appliances that may be powered anywhere in the world. We have to design for the different AC input voltages that are used globally. These AC voltage lines require minimum creepage distances maintained in the design. The AC circuits are mixed among the DC circuits due to the end-product configuration and controls. Often components have to be selected with lead spacing based on the minimum distances Australian research- ers at the University of Adelaide have de- veloped a method for embedding light- emitting nanoparticles into glass without los- ing any of their unique properties—a major step towards 'smart glass' applications such as 3D display screens or remote ra- diation sensors. This new "hybrid glass" successfully combines the properties of these special luminescent (or light-emitting) nanoparticles with the well-known aspects of glass, such as transparency and the abil- ity to be processed into various shapes including very fine optical fibres. "These novel luminescent nanoparticles, called upconversion nanoparticles, have become promising candidates for a whole variety of ultra- high tech applications such as biological sensing, biomedical imaging and 3D volumetric displays," says lead author Dr. Tim Zhao, from the Univer- sity of Adelaide's School of Physical Sciences and Institute for Photonics and Advanced Sensing (IPAS). "Integrating these nanoparticles into glass, which is usually inert, opens up exciting possi- bilities for new hybrid materials and devices that can take advantage of the properties of nanoparticles in ways we haven't been able to do before. For ex- ample, neuroscientists currently use dye in- jected into the brain and lasers to be able to guide a glass pi- pette to the site they are interested in. If flu- orescent nanoparticles were embedded in the glass pipettes, the unique luminescence of the hybrid glass could act like a torch to guide the pipette directly to the individual neurons of interest." Although this method was developed with up- conversion nanoparticles, the researchers believe their new 'direct-doping' approach can be gener- alised to other nanoparticles with interesting pho- tonic, electronic and magnetic properties. To date, the method used to integrate upcon- version nanoparticles into glass has relied on the in-situ growth of the nanoparticles within the glass. "We've seen remarkable progress in this area but the control over the nanoparticles and the glass compositions has been limited, restricting the development of many proposed applications," says project leader Professor Heike Ebendorff- Heideprem, Deputy Director of IPAS. Glass Now Has Smart Potential

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