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24 The PCB Design Magazine • December 2016 neering effort can be invested in a sale that may eventuate in multiple seats globally. The com- plexity and expense, associated with EDA prod- ucts and services, generally require a lengthy customer education, evaluation and approval process and greatly depend on the customers' budgetary constraints and budget cycles. These salespeople use target account selling techniques to break into the closed circle of influence with- in a company to close the sale. However, at the SME level, this amount of effect can no longer be justified. So the lower-level sales are more a numbers game, where profit margins are much tighter. Rather than make sales visits to a pro - spective company, vendors now easily demon- strate online and market via public webinars. While most design is now performed by the SME companies who now dominate the EDA market, EDA tools must evolve to satisfy the challenging needs of today's engineers and PCB designers. The latest EDA offerings provide high - ly productive tools for the ever-increasing num- ber of global users, at an affordable price point. Really, it has never been better! PCBDESIGN References 1. Barry Olney's Beyond Design columns: Rise of the Independent Engineer, Why Auto- routers Don't Work, and Learning the Curve 2. Peggy Aycinena: PCB Tools, Part 1 3. Cadence Design Systems 10-K Filings 4. Santiago Solari: How Cadence generates a steady revenue stream 5. Kirti Sikri Desai: EDA Innovation through Merger Acquisitions 6. Ed Sperling: Buying And Selling EDA Companies Barry Olney is Managing Director of In-Circuit Design Pty Ltd (iCD), Australia. The company is a PCB design service bureau that spe- cializes in board-level simulation. iCD developed the iCD Stackup Planner and iCD PDN Planner soft- ware. Visit MARKETING IN THE MATURING EDA INDUSTRY Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Insti- tute of Technology have demon- strated a method to chemically modify small regions of gra- phene with high precision, lead- ing to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. Writing in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, researchers led by Dr. Aravind Vijayaraghavan have shown that it is possible to combine graphene with chemical and biological molecules and form patterns, which are 100s of nanometres wide. Graphene is the world's first two-dimensional material. It is strong, transparent, flexible and the world's most conductive material. Every atom in graphene is exposed to its environment, allowing it to sense changes in its surroundings. Using technology that resembles writing with a quill or fountain pen, the scientists were able to deliver chemical droplets to the surface of gra- phene in very small volumes. In order to achieve such fine chemical patterns, the re- searchers used droplets of chemicals less than 100 attoli- tres (10-16 L) in volume; that's 1/10,000,000,000,000,000th of a litre. Two types of 'pens' were used, one which is dipped into the reactive 'ink' like a quill to cover the nib, and the other where the ink is filled into a reservoir and flows through a channel in the nib, just like in a fountain pen. An array of such micro- pens are moved over the graphene surface to de- liver the chemical droplets which react with the graphene. These techniques are key to enabling graphene sensors which can be used in real-world applica- tions; graphene sensors fabricated this way have the potential to be used in blood tests, minimising the amount of blood a patient is required to give. Graphene Calligraphy

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