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December 2016 • The PCB Design Magazine 35 nels the right solutions is quickly identified by both parties. From the communication/brand- ing standpoint, we use an approach that puts us in as many places as possible to create aware- ness and drive customers to our sales channels. We also have programs in place to encourage our resellers to also invest in marketing Down- Stream products in their respective territories. Shaughnessy: We've all seen how marketing has changed in the last 10 years or so. There are so many new ways to market your tools now, with social media leading the way. What works best for DownStream? Almeida: We still subscribe to the same philoso- phy of brand awareness as mentioned above. From our standpoint, Internet marketing has created more of a change to marketing dynam- ics than just social media. It's interesting be- cause the internet and its emerging technolo- gies have made it very easy for customers to find what they are looking for. We are seeing a shift to more of a "self-serve" dynamic. For in- stance, we see a growing participation in online webinars while a simultaneous drop in physi- cal seminars. So while our philosophy of being in many places as possible has remained, we've adjusted our budgeting to invest more in new marketing channels and decrease investment in some of the more obsolete channels. Shaughnessy: What would you like to do to im- prove your sales and marketing processes? Almeida: I think the biggest area of improve- ment is to follow the growing self-service mar- keting trend. This is a big challenge as customers are more removed from your sales force, which makes understanding their problems more dif- ficult. So you have to really focus more on en- suring that your message and your product so- lutions are really understood by the customer without external support. But in the end, this is the direction of not just the EDA industry, but across many industries and markets. There is an old saying that when dealing with change you must either adapt, migrate, or die. We're still young and have a lot to offer! Shaughnessy: Thanks, Rick. I appreciate your time. Almeida: Thanks, Andy. PCBDESIGN SALES AND MARKETING WITH DOWNSTREAM Researchers have developed a low-cost skin patch that changes color to indicate different levels of hydration, representing a poten- tial new medical technology. Such an innovation might be used by marathon runners, mili- tary personnel and others to help prevent dehydration. "Hydration in humans is a delicate parameter," said Babak Ziaie, a professor of biomedical engi- neering and electrical and computer engineering at Purdue University. "Even small deviations such as 2 percent from normal levels can affect a person's cognitive and physical performance by more than 30 percent." The palm-size patch consists of filter paper that is laser-machined to create a radial array of strips, which are laminated with a wa- ter-impermeable film to form microchannels. The channels are loaded with a water-activated dye at one end. As sweat secretion in- creases, the strips are activated sequentially, changing from blue to red and providing easily identi- fiable levels of moisture loss. "We have talked to many experts including mara- thon directors, the Ironman World Championship, Olympic triathlon athletes and many collegiate and professional coaches, athletes, race directors and EMTs to validate the need for this kind of product," said graduate student Vaibhav Jain. The patch was tested at a sweating rate of 90 mi- croliters per hour over a square centimeter of skin, which corresponds to normal human sweat rates. Paper-Based Skin Patch Monitors Dehydration

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