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October 2017 • SMT Magazine 15 THE ROLE OF BISMUTH (BI) IN ELECTRONICS, PART 1 proved hair dyes. Additionally, bismuth is used in metallic paints and glass coloration products, as well as in heat/energy absorption coatings, such as solar panels. For metal industry, Bi has been successfully used as a lubricant to steel and aluminum, im- proving the machinability of free-cutting steels and aluminum. In galvanizing, Bi in place of Pb has been used to increase fluidity of the bath and wettability of steel. This Bi function makes the lead-free galvanizing possible. Then there are "green bullets." U.S. Army engineers have been trying to develop lead-free, combat-ready cartridges since the early 2000s. Reportedly, more than 1,000 indoor military shooting rang- es have closed because of the Pb-contamination problem and the resulting high airborne Pb-lev- el. For this purpose, Bi is found to be a success- ful replacement for Pb. For electronic applications, Bi-compounds are found to effectively improve and alter the properties of ceramic materials, such as lower- ing the processing temperature and improving the properties of varistors (zinc oxide). Bismuth telluride, a semiconductor, is found to be an ex- cellent thermoelectric material. Additionally, bismuth has been used in elec- tronic solders, which will be the subsequent topics of this series. SMT Dr. Jennie Hwang, an international businesswoman, speaker, and business and technology advisor, is a pioneer and long-standing contributor to SMT manufacturing since its inception, as well as to the lead-free electron- ics implementation. Among her many awards and honors, she is inducted to the Interna- tional Hall of Fame – Women in Technology, elected to the National Academy of Engineering, named an R&D-Stars-to-Watch and awarded YWCA Achieve- ment Award. Having held senior executive posi- tions with Lockheed Martin Corp., Sherwin Williams Co., SCM Corp, IEM Corp., she is currently CEO of H-T echnologies Group, providing business, tech- nology and manufacturing solutions. She serves as Chairman of Assessment Board of DoD Army Re- search Laboratory, Commerce Department's Ex- port Council, National Materials and Manufacturing Board, various national panels/committees, interna- tional leadership positions, and on the board of For- tune-500 NYSE companies and civic and university boards. She is the author of 475+ publications and several books, and a speaker and author on trade, business, education, and social issues. Her formal education includes four academic degrees as well as Har vard Business School Executive Program and Columbia University Corporate Governance Pro - gram. Further info: Juergen Staedtler, CEO of Vermes Microdispens- ing GmbH, talks with I-Connect007 Managing Edi- tor Stephen Las Marias about their latest innovations in microdispensing, and how their piezo technology is addressing the trend towards miniaturization in PCB assemblies. Staedtler also discusses how microdispensing can complement solder paste printing in the SMT line. Watch the interview here. Vermes Highlights Piezo Technology in Microdispensing

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