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52 The PCB Magazine • November 2017 at components that have to be mounted on these boards. We need the designers and the fab guys to understand the conditions that these boards are going to go through when they get to our end and a lot of it is heat. We're concerned about the number of heat cycles we can run a board through, and how we can keep from damag- ing things as we go through the heat cycles. From the material aspect, we need to make sure that the materials are robust enough to with- stand the things that we're going to put them through at our end. Matties: All right then. Thank you, everybody. This was great. Burns: Yeah, that was good. Bird: Thanks. Torres: Thanks, I appreciate it. PCB on the trace itself. Of course, as speeds get high- er you probably don't want to put the paste on there. Probing just the trace is certainly an op- tion, although sometimes probing the trace will deform the trace, so now you're introducing an- other aspect of altering the circuit. Las Marias: Vince, from an EMS provider stand- point, what do you think our readers should consider when it comes to HDI assembly? Burns: Honestly, I think one of the best com- ments I've heard today was just more commu- nication and better communication up front. So for the design and the fab end of it, the readers should consider contacting not just the OEMs but some EMS manufacturing facilities and ask them up front what their capabilities are. If we go smaller and smaller, what do we need to do as an industry to be able to manufacture things at that level? This also goes to the component manufacturers because now we're also looking Electroplating, or electrodeposition, is one of the most important processes in chemistry. A met- al cation in solution can be reduced to its elemental form by applying an electrical potential to an elec- trode. This enables electrical contacts to be made in integrated cir cuits with nanometric precision. Despite decades of research worldwide, visual- ising the early stages of electrodeposition—the for- mation of the first nucleus—remains a formidable challenge. A collaborative work involving the Uni- versity of Bristol's Schools of Chemistry, Physics and the Bristol Centre for Func- tional Nanomaterials CDT has come up with an entire- ly new approach to moni- toring the process leading to the birth of a nucleus in real time. Writing in the journal Nature Communication, the team show how detecting very small local perturba - tion of the water structure near the surface, the complex dynamics of early stages of electrodeposition can be tracked. David Fermin, professor of electrochemistry and lead au- thor of the work, said: "This is a very exciting de- velopment which pushes the boundaries of spatio- temporal resolution of electrochemical processes. "There are highly sophisticated methods which allows monitoring phenomena at the atomic scale, but compromising the dynamics of the process, while other methods can follow very fast dynamics, but we can't see where they happen in space." Employing Lateral Mo- lecular Force Microscopy, developed by the team of Professor Mervyn Miles at the School of Physics, the team could spot the forma- tion of a metallic nucleus by following perturbations of visco-elastic properties of hydration layers with nano - meter resolution. Electroplating: Birth of a Single Nucleus Caught 'In Camera' HDI: TODAY, TOMORROW AND THE FUTURE

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