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66 PCB007 MAGAZINE I MARCH 2018 be dual bend bookbinder rigid-flex, which in- cludes multiple bookbinding areas that do not all bend it the same direction causing a hump on both sides of the board. Additive Process, Sub-1-mil Lines and Spaces Using an additive process, rather than a subtractive etch process to form the circuitry, opens up significant advantages in the HDI and fine line market. The process I am most famil- iar with uses a special catalytic precursor "ink" that can be imaged to create the patterns or ar- eas where conducting metal is to be deposited. The ink controls the horizontal dimensions of the line width and spacing and the vertical di- mension is controlled using an additive plating process that deposits metal only on the pat- terns defined by the ink. If this additive process is new technology for you, this is your chance to use your imagina- tion and think outside of the box. Vias can be drilled prior to the metallization process and are then plated at the same time that the sur- face conductors are formed, eliminating sever- al process steps. This process can deliver fine lines down to 5 microns in width. There is a significant advantage to RF designs with this process. Because the traces are formed with an additive process, the trapezoidal effect from the subtractive etch process is removed. This process also offers the option of using metals other than copper, which is critical for applica- tions with biocompatibility concerns. Whether you are new to single- and double- sided flex, moving into rigid-flex construction, thinking of using bookbinder technology, or in- vestigating an additive process, working with new technology can be both exciting and chal- lenging. My best advice when working with flex and rigid-flex is to involve your fabricators as early in the design process as possible. They work with this technology every day, have an enormous wealth of knowledge, and are happy to share and guide designers as they learn and adjust to new technology. PCB007 Tara Dunn is the president of Omni PCB, a manufacturer's rep firm specializing in the printed circuit board industry. To read past columns or to contact Dunn, click here. European spending on smart city initiative related tech- nologies is expected to reach $19 billion in 2018, accord- ing to International Data Corporation (IDC). In the first re- lease of the Worldwide Semiannual Smart Cities Spend- ing Guide, IDC provides a look at the technology invest- ments associated with a range of smart city priorities and use cases. "European cities face significant forces for change— urbanization, collaboration, and the democratization of public services, to name a few. In response, cities are be- coming increasingly smart; they are adopting innovative technology solu- tions and redesigning business and service delivery models to take a more user-centric approach, while allow- ing users to have greater input into how their city works," said Chris Pennell, research director in IDC 's Government Insights Europe group. "In turn this is helping to drive ex- penditure across a range of use cases. In IDC's view, a smart city begins to be developed when multiple smart initiatives are coordinated to lever- age technology investments across an entire city, use common platforms to decrease service time/mainte- nance costs, share data across sys- tems, and tie IT investments clearly to smart missions. Smart city programs are enabled by 3rd Platform technol- ogies, and emerging technologies are accelerated in the city ecosystem to deliver innovative solutions in very specific areas. European Investments in Technologies Enabling Smart City Initiatives to Reach $19 Billion in 2018

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