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July 2014 • SMT Magazine 39 WHISKER GRoWTH IN TIN AlloyS oN GlASS-EPoxy lAMINATE continues fEATURE and close to the solder top surface. Densely dis- tributed round-shaped Cu 6 Sn 5 precipitates with diameters from one to several micrometers also reached the top surface of solder in many places. It can be concluded that CTE differences of various PCB regions with tin alloys on glass-epoxy laminate facilitate spatially non-uniform whisker growth directly by the non-uniform compressive stress and indirectly by the generation of a non- uniform spatial distribution of IMCs. SMT Acknowledgements The work has been partially supported by the National Science Centre (project number N N515 503940). References 1. D. Pinsky, M. Osterman, S. Ganesan, IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies 27, 427 (2004). 2. G.T. Galyon, IEEE Transactions on Elec - tronics Packaging Manufacturing 28, 94 (2005). 3. G.T. Galyon, L. Palmer, IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing 28, 17 (2005). 4. C. Xu, Y. Zhang, C. Fan, J.A. Abys, IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufac- turing 28, 31 (2005). 5. J. Smetana, IEEE Transactions on Electron- ics Packaging Manufacturing 30, 11 (2007). 6. J. Cheng, S. Chen, P.T. Vianco, J.C.M. Li, Journal of Applied Physics 107, 074902 (2010). 7. B.D. Dunn, A laboratory study of tin whis- ker growth, European Space Agency (1987). 8. J. Cheng, F. Yang, P.T. Vianco, B. Zhang, J.C.M. Li, Journal of Electronic Materials 40, 2069 (2011). 9. X.C. Tong, Advanced Materials for Thermal Management of Electronic Packaging (Springer Series in Advanced Microelectronics) Schaum - burg 2011. 10. R. Schetty, Circuit World 27, 17 (2001). 11. R. Sanapala, Characterization of FR-4 Printed Circuit Board Laminates Before and After Exposure to Lead-free Soldering Conditions, Pro- Quest LLC, Ann Arbor, 2008. 12. A. Skwarek, M. Pluska, A. Czerwinsky, K. Witek, Materials Science and Engineering B177, 1286 (2012). 13. N. Vo, M. Kwoka, P. Bush, IEEE Transac- tions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing 28, 3 (2005). 14. J. Orloff, M. Utlaut, L. Swanson, High Resolution Focused Ion Beam: FIB and Its Ap- plications, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New York 2003. 15. L.A. Giannuzzi, F.A. Stevie, Introduction to Focused Ion Beams: Instrumentation, Theory, Techniques and Practice, Springer, New York 2005. 16. S.W. Liang, C. Chen, J.K. Han, L. Xu, K.N. Tu, Y.-S. Lai, Journal of Applied Physics 107, 093715 (2010). 17. S. Choi, K.N. Subramanian, J.P. Lucas, T.R. Bieler, T.R., Journal of Electronic Materials 29, 1249 (2000). 18. G.T.T. Sheng, C.F. Hu, W.J. Choi, K.N. Tu, Y.Y. Bong, L. Nguyen, Journal of Applied Phys- ics 92, 64 (2002). 19. K.N. Tu, J.C.M. Li, Materials Science and Engineering A 409, 131 (2005). 20. C.-F. Yu, C.-M. Chan, K.-C. Hsieh, Micro- electronics Reliability 50, 1146 (2010). Andrzej Czerwinski (PhD, DSc) is associate professor and head of Department of Materials and Semiconductor Structures Re- search, institute of Electron Tech- nology, Warsaw, Poland. Agata Skwarek (PhD) is an assis- tant professor in the Department of Microelectronics in the institute of Electron Technology (Krakow Division), Poland. Mariusz Pluska (PhD) and Jacek Ratajczak (PhD) are assistant professors with the Department of Materials and Semiconductor Structures Research, institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw, Poland. Krzysztof Witek (M.Sc. Eng.) works in the institute of Electron Tech- nology (Krakow Division), Poland as manager of implementation and Production Department.

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