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88 The PCB Magazine • July 2016 micron depending on photoresist type. There are 1–7 recording heads (8 optional). The light source is UV-LED, multiple wavelengths in the range of 350 to 420 nm. KLEO Halbleitertechnik GmbH, Germany, has supplied direct imagers since 2009, with systems in production in Germany and Switzerland. The KLEO-LDI-System CB20HV- Twinstage uses a 405 nm wavelength laser di- ode. The 405 nm radiation source is dominant in Asia. Photoresists (dry film and liquid) suit- able for exposure at 405 nm are available from Hitachi, DuPont, Atotech, Eternal, Kolon and Elga Europe. Orbotech has installed over 1000 direct imagers. Its Nuvogo DI System is designed for mass production of advanced HDI/flex and rigid flex applications, according to Orbotech. The Nuvogo™ 800 is compatible with nearly all resist types. Its resolution is capable of 18-mi- cron lines and spaces. Nuvogo makes use of Orbotech's well-established Large-Scan-Optics technology (LSO). The MultiWave Laser Tech- nology™ uses a multi-wavelength laser beam of high intensity so that lower cost resist with standard photosensitivity can be used for high throughput (up to 7,000 panels/day/line) with optimal line structure. Manz, a supplier of wet processing chemis- try modules, has diversified into digital imaging with its SpeedLight 2D system. It features a twin stage, allowing imaging of the first panel while a second panel is being registered. The imager consists of 288 laser diode beams that are mod- ulated by nine polygon mirror modules. Limata GmbH, the German supplier of la- ser direct imaging systems used in small lot PCB production and photochemical machining, has developed its established UV-P models into the advanced UV-R Series. It makes use of the latest UV diode lasers with multiple wavelengths and a long lifetime. Both models are equipped with 1–8 laser heads. Resolution down to 25-micron lines and spaces is being achieved. A pre-regis- tration module can address up to 64 registra- tion targets. Soldermasks can be imaged using up to three different wavelengths for maximum intensity to accommodate less photo-sensitive masks. A robotic load and unload station can be added for enhanced throughput and optimal all have in common the building of a pattern, pixel by pixel, and they employ digital on/off switches to form the pattern. The switch might be an optical modulator as in laser direct im- aging, or an array of LCPs (liquid crystal poly- mer cells) that can be rendered translucent or opaque by addressing it with an electrical pulse. Or the switch might be micro-mirrors on a chip, such as Texas Instruments' Digital Micromirror Device™ (DMD), whereby tiny mirrors are ad- dressed with an electric pulse so that the mirror is either tilted to direct the light to the substrate or away from the substrate. The following is an overview of develop- mental and commercial digital imaging systems introduced more recently: The French supplier of imaging systems Altix-Automa-Tech introduced its ADIX-System. It is based on an advanced high-power LED ra- diation source (ALDS), a dual multi-wavelength UV-LED (365, 385, 395, and 405nm), and Digital Micromirror Devices™ (DMDs). The system is available with two, four, or six light heads. The system is suitable for rigid and flex substrates and has automatic handling options. Earlier systems using DMDs include: • ORC's DI-Impact (formerly by Pentax) • Hitachi DE imagers DE-H, DE-S, and DE-F series • MIVA Technologies GmbH, Germany, Miva 2600X Direct Imager • Maskless Lithography's DMD-based system (USA), using a mercury arc light source, and • Aiscent Technologies Inc. (Canada) The Korean company AJUHITEK entered the market with its EP digital imager series that is using a laser diode radiation source with the wavelength of 405 nm. HAN's Laser is the only Chinese supplier of direct imagers to the best of my knowledge. The Japanese direct imager suppliers ADTEC, DNS, ORC and Via Mechanics continue to in- troduce improved systems. The Swiss supplier PrintProcess introduced its Appollon-DI-F10 (manual single frontload) and the Apollon-DI-A11 (auto double-side re- verse inline). Line width resolution is 30 to 20 DIGITAL IMAGING UPDATE

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