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34 SMT007 MAGAZINE I AUGUST 2019 of how seemingly inaccessible. This ensures complete encapsulation of the substrate with- out blocking small openings. Additionally, Parylene coatings are extremely lightweight, offering excellent barrier proper- ties without adding dimension or significant mass to delicate components. Typical Parylene coatings range in thickness from 500 angstroms to 75 microns. Most other coating materials cannot be applied as thin as Parylene and still provide the same level of protection. There are several variants in the poly-para- xylylene family, but all are completely linear, highly crystalline materials that provide the benefits of being ultra-thin and lightweight. They all also provide an excellent dielectric, moisture, and chemical barrier, add strength to wire bonds, ensure efficient signal transmis- sion, and are biocompatible. Parylenes have extremely low dielectric constants and dissipa- tion factors, enabling them to provide small, tight packages with dielectric insulation via a thin coating. The voltage breakdown per unit thickness actually increases with decreasing Parylene film thickness. Parylene coatings have been used through- out the electronics, transportation, aerospace, defense, and medical device industries for over 45 years to solve industry challenges. In fact, where other solutions have become insuffi- cient to meet the growing needs of the indus- try, Parylene coatings are providing answers at a time when products need to be small, light- weight, robust, and reliable. Industry Challenges and the Parylene Solution Small and Lightweight Whether working on gadgets for the con- sumer market or defense hardware, electronics manufacturers face relentless pressure to make electronic packages smaller and lightweight; this is a constant, regardless of the size of the overall device. While mobile phones have actually become larger in recent years, they are packed with more power and functionality than their predecessors so their internal com- ponents had to shrink. Similarly, automobiles and aircraft stay roughly the same size, but

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